Tiffani MayChemistry Period 2
Biotin is important for healthy hair and skin. 100 mg of biotin may prevent hair loss in some men. Biotin helps to relieve muscle pain. It promotes healthy nerve tissue, bone marrow and sweat glands. It also relieves seborrheic dermatitis in infants.
Biotin works with folic acid and vitamin B12 to break down fats, protein, and carbohydrates. Biotin is found in most foods and also manufactured by bacteria in the intestinal tract. Most biotin deficiencies are associated with the consumption of raw egg whites which contain avidin. Avidin binds with biotin to prevent its absorption into the blood. Cooking the egg whites deactivates avidin. Biotin is non-toxic and probably not required in supplement form. Although biotin deficiencies are rare, they can occur when people have malabsorption problems. Some research indicates that male pattern baldness may respond to supplemented biotin, albeit in a very marginal fashion.
Biotin is found in cooked egg yolks, salt-water fish, beef and poultry, milk, cheese, soy products and whole grain breads. If athletes are eating raw egg whites, extra biotin must be consumed.
Reagent for enzymatic incorporation of biotin into nucleic acids. Biotin-21-dUTP is a dTTP analog with biotin covalently attached to the pyrimidine ring through a 21-atom spacer arm. It can be incorporated by nick translation, mixed primer labeling, 3′-end-labeling, or PCR. Biotin-21-dUTP has a 21-atom spacer arm, the longest spacer available, which reduces steric hindrance in subsequent detection using streptavidin-conjugated enzymes. 100 µl is sufficient for 50 nick translation reactions. Biotin-21-dUTP is provided with a complete User Manual (PT1464-1).
Biotin-21-dUTP (0.5 mM) 100 µl 5021-1
Biotin-21-dUTP (10 mM) 100 µl 5021-3
100 µl of 0.5 mM solution in 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)
or 100 µl of 10 mM solution in 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5)
Biotin plays a key role in turning fat, carbohydrates and amino acids into fuel for the body. It also helps strengthen hair and nails.
3/4 cup of soybeans or 1/2 cup of oatmeal = 30 mcg (Adequate Intake for adult male)
Brewer’s yeast, liver, oatmeal, soybeans, eggs, salmon, milk, mushrooms, halibut, bananas, peanut butter, cantaloupes, cottage cheese.*
*Foods have been placed in descending order from best to good source.
Deficiency Signs, Symptoms and Those at Risk
Signs of deficiency in infants are skin rash and/or scaly inflammation of the skin.
Signs of deficiency in adults are dry, scaly skin; nausea; fatigue; depression; and hair loss.
Infants under six months born with very low levels of biotinidase (the enzyme that activates biotin) are at risk for deficiency.
Adults on long-term anti-convulsant drugs, which can inhibit biotin uptake in the intestines, are at risk for deficiency.
To date, no cases of biotin toxicity have been reported.
1-85 Deficiencies of Vitamins B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin) and the cofactor (helper substance) Biotin reduce immune resistance markedly. If B5 (Pantothenic Acid) or B6 (Pyridoxine) are deficient, resistance drops almost to zero. A good B Complex is necessary to compliment Vitamin C when fighting infections.
1-144 Biotin is essential to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. It has no known toxicity. Any supplemental form is as good as another. The best natural sources of Biotin are soybeans and brown rice. Raw egg white contains a substance called avidin, which prevents Biotin from being absorbed into the body. Biotin can help with hair loss only when used as part of a complete vitamin and mineral supplement.
In 1916 it was discovered there was a detrimental effect in eating raw eggs.*
susceptible to strong acid and alkaline, UV
stable in heat, visible light and air
the D-isomer id its active form
absorbed in the small intestine mainly by active transport (some passive absorption and possibly some bacteria synthesis)
storage of biotin occurs in the liver, kidney and adrenals
* inhibited by avidin which is found in raw egg whites
alcohol, coffee, raw egg whites
increases the synthesis of B12
with B2, B3, B6, A in skin function
with B5 in hair pigmentation
Mg and Phosphorus are needed to convert biotin into it’s active form
needed to activate B5, B9, B12
1. carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions in protein metabolism
6. antibody and haemoglobin production
8. maintain health of hair, skin, sebaceous glands, bone marrow, sex glands
9. can help cholesterol plaques in blood vessels
grey skin (although they are not dying), alopecia (hair loss), scaly dermatitis, skin dryness
increased lactic acid levels
increased blood cholesterol
Reproductive abnormalities due to mother’s deficiency – cleft palate, micromelia (abnormally small limbs)
for the deficiencies above
candida (biotin decreases levels of Candida)
Most animal and plant tissues, eg. egg yolk, liver, nuts, soya beans, brown rice, Royal jelly, bee pollen, Brewer’s yeast.
Tiffani May is a college student at Delaware County, she is currently majoring in communications.