unit 5 principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care

1.1 & 1.2 – define the following types of abuse and the signs and symptoms associated with each.

Physical abuse

The term physical abuse is applied to the act of a person/s causing physical pain or injury to another person. The types of abuse that could be put into this category are:


The signs of physical abuse could include unexplainable marks to the skin including bruising, grazing, blisters from burns -these would usually found in not so visible places such as the trunk of the body or to the arms and legs, pain with no visible bruising from the ribs or abdominal area or unexplained broken bones, presence of several injuries of a variety of ages, injuries that have not received medical attention

Individuals subject to this kind of abuse may shown signs of fear in the presence of the abuser and may appear withdrawn, nervous and flinch or shy away from raised hand gestures, they may even present as over willing to please to avoid further injury.

Sexual abuse

Sexual abuse is defined as the forcing of unwanted sexual activity by one person on another, usually by way of threats or coercion. It is also sexual activity that is deemed improper or harmful, this for example could be a sexual act between an adult and a minor or with a person with out the mental
capacity to give consent to the act.

Sexual abuse can occur in both physical contact and non-physical forms, the types of abuse that could fall within these categories are:

·Touching an individual’s genitals or private parts for sexual purposes ·Forcing an individual to touch someone else’s genitals or play sexual games ·Putting objects or body parts (like fingers, tongue, or penis) in the vagina, mouth, or anus of an individual Non-Physical

·Forcing an individual to view pornography
·Deliberately exposing an adult’s genitals to another individual ·Photographing an individual in sexual poses
·Encouraging an individual to observe others engaging in sexual acts

Signs of abuse could include bruising or sores around breasts and genital areas, avoiding specific settings or individuals, unexplained vaginal or anal bleeding, changes in personality or behaviour, unexplained venereal disease or genital infections, excessive crying, unexplained pregnancy, social withdrawal, torn, stained, bloody, or missing underclothing.

Emotional/psychological abuse

Emotional/psychological abuse is any form of abuse that is emotional rather than physical. It can include anything from verbal abuse and constant criticism to more subtle tactics such as intimidation and manipulation, forms of abuse that fall into this category include. ·Name calling

·Insulting a person
·Threatening a person or threatening to take away something that is important to them ·Imitating or mocking a person
·Swearing at a person
·Ignoring someone intentionally
·Isolating a person or excluding them from meaningful events or activities
·Preventing visits from friends or family
·Constant criticism of a person
·Placing constant blame on a person
The signs of this form of abuse could include changes in personality or behaviour. These can present as the individual having low self-esteem and opinions of themselves and an overall lack of confidence, increased levels of anxiety and confusion, incontinence and a reluctance to participate in usual activities that they have ordinarily enjoyed previously they could also present as generally withdraw within themselves. Financial abuse

Financial abuse is the improper or unauthorised use of a person’s finances, possessions or services. Forms of abuse included in this category are:

·Inappropriate spending
·Withholding funds
·Fraudulent use of an individuals information to obtain credit or services ·Unauthorised use of services such as using the telephone to make inappropriate calls-e.g. Premium rate numbers such as chat lines

The signs of this form of abuse could include personal items going missing, unaccounted for withdrawals or transaction from bank accounts, increased utility bills, insufficient funds to pay bills and provide for themselves, unusual letters from creditors.

Institutional abuse

Institutional abuse is a term of abuse where by inadvertently individuals rights and choices are not recognised but are governed by rigid organisational policies and procedures, or where poor standards of care are being delivered due to lack of training and knowledge of staff, a lack of resources to meet care and support needs or even a lack of comfort or privacy. Indications of institutional abuse can include:

·Misuse of restraint or inappropriate restraint methods
·Sensory deprivation e.g. denial of use of spectacles, hearing aid etc ·Lack of respect shown to personal dignity
·Restricted access to toilet or bathing facilities
·Restricted access to appropriate medical or social care
·Lack of flexibility and choice e.g. mealtimes and bedtimes or choice of food ·Lack of personal clothing or possessions
·Lack of adequate procedures e.g. for medication, financial management ·Poor professional practice
·High number of complaints, accidents or incidents

Self neglect

Self-neglect can be defined as “The inability (intentional or non-intentional) to maintain a socially and culturally accepted standard of self-care with the potential for serious consequences to the health and well-being of the self-neglecters and perhaps even to their community.” The indications of self-neglect can include

·messy personal appearance and poor personal hygiene
·hoarding items and pets
·neglecting household maintenance
·living in an unclean environment
·unwillingness to take medication

Neglect by others

Neglect by others can be defined as deliberately failing to take care of someone you have caring or support responsibilities for properly, which in turn can cause ill health, upset or harm. Forms of abuse included in this category can include:

·failure to provide sufficient or appropriate sustenance
·failure to carryout person care needs to maintain hygiene ·failure to be given the opportunity to seek medical or professional help ·disregard for
the basic rights and needs of an individual ·poor living conditions

·failure to protect from harm or injury

Signs of this form of abuse can include an unkempt personal appearance, body odour and evidence of poor personal hygiene practice, untreated medical conditions, lack of clean clothes, poorly maintained or dirty living conditions, weight loss due to lack of substances or severe weight gain due to poor diet

1.3 – describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse.

Individual being more vulnerable to abuse include those who are in need of care and support due to mental health issues, physical disability, learning difficulties age and any other illness that prevents them from taking care of themselves or protecting themselves form harm or exploitation.

These may be individuals living in residential care settings, living at home with family, in their own homes, shared community houses or even day care settings.

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