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the heart and its blood vessels

The heart is an organ that acts as a ‘’pump’’ because it pumps blood continuously that is rich in a high concentration of oxygen throughout the organs of the human body such as the brain. Blood is carried through tube like structures called blood vessels such as the artery and the vein. The arteries carry blood from the heart at high pressure which contains a high concentration of oxygen and nutrients to supply the organs. Veins carry blood at low pressure to the heart which contains a high concentration of carbon dioxide and with a low concentration of oxygen and nutrients. The main artery in the human body is called the aorta which pumps blood at a very high but constant pressure to all the organs of the body to supply them with a high concentration of oxygen and nutrients.

The main vein in the human body is called the vena cava, there are two parts in the vena cava, the superior vena cava which collects blood from the upper parts of the human body such as the head, and the inferior vena cava which collects blood at a low but constant pressure from the lower parts of the human body such as the lower limbs. There are 4 chambers or parts of the heart, but always understand that the right part of the heart carries oxygenated blood and the left part of the heart carries deoxygenated blood. The right side of the heart contains the right atrium and the right ventricle which are responsible for carrying oxygenated blood to all parts of the human body. The left side of the heart is responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The pulmonary artery is found in the right side of the heart, it carries deoxygenated blood at a high pressure to the lungs. The pulmonary vein is found in the left side of the heart, it carries oxygenated blood at a low pressure from the lungs to the heart. The coronary arteries carry blood which supplies the heart oxygen and nutrients. Cardiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of the heart and its blood vessels. Hematology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of the blood.

The Blood Vessels

The Artery:

1.The artery carries oxygenated blood with nutrients. (Except the pulmonary artery).

2.The artery carries blood at high pressure.

3.The artery carries blood away from the heart.

4.The artery has a thick wall for carrying blood at high pressure.

The Vein:

1.The vein carries deoxygenated blood with a low concentration of nutrients. (Except the pulmonary vein).

2.The vein carries blood at low pressure.

3.The vein carries blood to the heart.

4.The vein is one cell thick for substances to diffuse in and out.

5.The vein consists of valves to obstruct the back flow of blood.

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