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the gift of the nile river

The gift of the River Nile Done by: Priscilla Gan, 1PE (14) Table of contents: Introduction -page 1 Its role in ancient Egypt -Economically -page 2 -Socially -page 3 -Culturally -page 5 -Politically -page 7 Bibliolography: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Nile http://www. ancient-egypt-online. com/river-nile-facts. html http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ancient_Egypt Ancient Egyptians materials and technology by Paul T. Nicholson, Ian Shaw http://www. riverschool. rg/students/work/culture. e. econ. htm http://www. ancient-egypt-online. com/ancient-egypt-houses. html http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sobek http://www. touregypt. net/featurestories/hapi. htm http://www. historyofwar. org/articles/wars_french_egypt. html http://www. socialstudiesforkids. com/articles/worldhistory/introancientegypt1. htm http://www. enotes. com/history/q-and-a/who-built-suez-canal-why-was-important-when-170823 http://www. beforeus. com/egypt. htm http://www. ancient-egypt-online. com/ancient-egypt-map. html http://en. ikipedia. org/wiki/Cataracts_of_the_Nile Children’s encyclopedia of history by Dr Anne Millard and Patricia Vanays. Publisher: Ursborne publishing LTD INTRODUCTION: The river Nile is about 4130 miles long and is the longest river in Africa and the world. In Egypt, the River Nile creates a fertile green valley across the desert. It was by the banks of the river that one of the oldest civilizations in the world began. The ancient Egyptians lived and farmed along the Nile, using the soil to produce food for themselves and their animals.

Through almost entirely the desert, the northern section of the river flows, from Sudan into Egypt, a country where civilizations has depended on the river since ancient times. The Nile ends in a large delta that drains into the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the population of Egypt and cites can be found along the river along parts of the Nile valley, most of the historical and cultural site of ancient Egypt can also be found there. The river Nile flows through 9 countries while it is mostly associated with Egypt . It touches Ethiopia, Zaire, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and Sudan.

The river Nile flows from south to north and is form by three major tributaries: the White Nile, the Blue Nile and the Atbara. The White Nile is the longest of the tributaries while the Blue Nile is the main source of water and fertile soil and the Atbara flows into the Nile just north of Khartoum in the Sudan but it contributes less than one percent to total water flow. The river plays a crucial role in the ancient Egypt civilization, one of the greatest ancient civilizations. Page 1 ECONOMICALLY: The ancient Egyptians traded with foreign neighbours to obtain the exotic and rare goods that cannot be found in Egypt.

An example would be in the predynastic period, they established trade with Nubia to obtain gold and incense. Nubia is a region found along the Nile, in northern Sudan and southern Egypt thus they had used the river Nile for trade. Most importantly, the ancient Egyptians had rich fertile soil due to their annual inundations of the Nile River. They were able to produce an abundance of food. Plax plant were grown as the fibers of their stems could be used to make thread and thus linen could be made. Linen was used to make Cloth, which was a thriving trade during that time.

Papyrus was a crop that grew on the banks of river Nile; Papyrus could be used to make boats, which enabled transportation on the river Nile that is why trade could be established. With the form of trade, different occupations were needed such as, farmers that grew the crops, tailors that made clothes out of linen and since during that time Egypt was rich in building and decorative stones, these natural resources were used by craftsmen to make jewelry, statues and tools. Sailors on the trading ship were paid in grain, which they could use it to trade for clothes, food.

In the past, when you were shopping in Egypt, you would have to bargain on a price. The cost of an item would be measure by Deben (a copper weight of . 5ounces), a razor or a pair of shoes would cost at least or 2 Deben but for something like a pig that was worth about the same amount of 20 Deben, you would have to trade it for something that was worth the same amount. There were castes of people by wealth, at the top of the pyramid is the pharaoh, the upper class were the royal family, scribes, government officials priest and soldiers, following that were the middle class which consisted of farmers crafters and other skilled workers.

The lower class would be the slaves and servants. Over all, the Ancient Egyptian civilization had a pretty advanced economy. With trade, the many different jobs, and the weight of the Deben, the Egyptians had many great accomplishments. Page 2 SOCIALLY: -The river Nile flows from south to north, to its delta on the Mediterranean Sea. The river Nile would flood each year, bringing in water with rich soil, which helps to fertilize the land. The 3 stages of the Egyptian flood cycle were Akhet, the time of the Nile flooding, Peret, the sowing of the crops and Shemu, the time of harvest.

This affected the Egyptians, as when it was the time of flooding, the Egyptians would have to move away to places such as temples, which were from meant to stand the test of time, and floods, were built far the Nile. -For most of the ancient Egyptians houses were made out of materials that were handy and plentiful, this meant that their house designs were varied little. Wood in Egypt was scarce so they used mud bricks to make their houses. By mixing a compound of mud and straw and baking it in the sun, mud bricks were made .

Mud was not sturdy though it was plentiful, in a few years, the houses would crumble. These houses were usually for commoners who could afford little else while wealthy nobles used stone to construct their house as stone was much more sturdy and expensive. – In the past, Papyrus that was widely grown was too expensive; this affected the students of ancient Egypt unless they came from wealthy families. The students have to use Ostraka, flakes of limestone or potsherds (fragments of pottery). A sheet of blank papyrus potsherd

A shred of ostraka a flake of limestone CULTURALLY: Sobek: Crocodiles were feared in the river Nile which the ancient Egyptians were so dependent on, Egyptians who worked or travel on the Nile would pray to Sobek to protect them from being attacked by crocodiles in the Nile. The Crocodile god Sobek is depicted by a man with a crocodile head and he is a powerful and frightening deity. In some Egyptian creation myths, it was Sobek who first came out of the waters of chaos to create the world.

As a creator god, he was occasionally linked with the sun god Ra. In parts of Egypt where crocodiles were common, you could find most of the Sobek temples and in some temples, sacred crocodiles were kept in pools and became quite tame as they were fed the best cuts of meat. In other areas of Egypt, crocodiles were dealt with by simply hunting and killing them. Gradually, Sobek also came to symbolize the produce of the Nile and the fertility it brought to the land. Sobek, the crocodile god. Page5 Hapi: Hapi is the god of annual floods, his name means Running one which probably efers tot eh current of the Nile. He is typically depicted as a man with a large belly wearing a loincloth, having long hair and having pendulous, female-like breasts. The annual flooding is said to be the coming of Hapi and since the flooding provides fertile soil, which would otherwise be desert, Hapi symbolized fertile land. The Egyptians did not why it flooded each year, they believed that the gods, Khnemu, Anqet, and Satet were the guardians of the river Nile, they were in charge of releasing the right amount of silt every year and that Hapi was in charge of the flow of the flood.

During the flood, the Egyptians would throw sacred amulets, sacrifices and offerings into certain parts of the river Nile. The Egyptians hoped that through this offerings, Hapi would not make the flood too high or too low because if the flood was too high, their mud homes would be destroyed and if the food was too low, there would not be enough water for the fields and cattles. Meaning that Egypt would be in drought since it rarely rained. During the floods, statues of Hapi would be carried out to the towns and villages to be prayed to, it was a solemn occasion Page 6 POLITICALLY:

The French invasion of Egypt: The French invaded in the year 1798, France wanted control of Egypt for two major reasons–its commercial and agricultural potential and its strategic importance to the Anglo-French rivalry. Anglo-French rivalry is when the English and the French were competing for the Indian markets. “The Makluks were confident that they could the foreign invasion, this was largely due to their ignorance of the military potential of the French army that had landed on their shores (other better informed commanders had already made the same mistake about Napoleon).

It was also due to their confidence in their own military abilities. Murad Bey’s first reaction to the French invasion was to take a force of his best cavalry to repel the invaders. This force was defeated at Shubrakhit (13 July 1798) after Napoleon formed his infantry into squares. The march to Cairo was grueling even with effective Mamluk resistance. Egypt was at its driest, just before the Nile flood. Bedouin raids cut off French stragglers, and under many under commanders the French army could have disintegrated in the heat. In this case, the Nile’s annual inundation actually helped protect Egypt from the French invasion. By not flooding at the time that they were invading, made it extremely hot and this slowed them down along with the Mamluks resistance. The Mamluks are a powerful military caste in various Muslim societies, particularly in Egypt. The Nile also provided protection from attack. People wanting to invade Egypt would have to first cross the river, which was very wide in places. The Egyptians could stand on their own side of the river and throw spears at their attackers.

Any attacker who did cross the river was likely to be tired from making the crossing. The six cataracts along the Nile also protected the Egypt from any outside influences. A cataract is a waterfall or a violent rush of water. These cataracts did not let any enemies or foreigners enter and it kept them out. One vulnerable spot from which they could be attacked was the Suez Canal. This was the only was to get into ancient Egypt. The Suez Canal was built by the ancient Egypt pharaoh. The Suez Canal was located in one of the four ancient maps of the world, the Egyptian maps.

In the days of the early Egyptian Pharaohs, ocean vessels were able to use the Suez Canal to reach the Indian Ocean, South-western Asia and Australia. Later, the canals were choke with dessert sand. Ancient Egypt map, this one is of the Nile The Sixth Cataract is where the river valley as seen by Piri Reis. Piri Reiss Nile cuts through the Sabaluka Was a Turkish admiral, geographer and pluton near Bagrawiyah Cartographer who lived from 1465 to 1555. The fourth cataract is in the Manasir Desert And is flooded by the Merowe Dam beginning In the third quarter of 2008 END

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