Submit an annotated bibliography about an ancient (pre-industrial) city established in either the Near East (Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley, or the Indus Valley) or Mesoamerica (Aztec, Maya, or Inca). There should be ten (10) sources followed by a summary of each source. Do not make this into an archaeological assignment by focusing on individual buildings and monuments with the selected city.
Ensure that your introduction contains a clear purpose statement that identifies the topic, geographic scale and time period(s) being examined. Avoid rambling narratives in which the theme becomes obscured and key points do not stand forth. If you are answering a research question, then explain why it is important or interesting. If you are writing an opinion paper, then state your opinion and why the issue being dealt with is important.
Maintain unity and coherence in the assignment’s body by clearly delineating ideas and developing them in an orderly manner (i.e. use logically arranged headings and sub-heading under which ideas are expanded). Do not place several different concepts into one paragraph.
State any necessary background information (e.g. concepts and circumstances) that has led to your opinion. Causes and effects should be objectively explained by giving attention to alternative explanations found during the review of literature associated with your urban topic. Include opposing views and discuss how and/or why they are flawed (before presenting your arguments). Avoid partial explanations.
Support the validity of your arguments with references to pertinent literature. Use quotations only when they add substantially to the force of what is being said; otherwise, paraphrase and cite the author(s) and year of publication. Avoid using a string of quotations that are loosely held together by linking sentences. This demonstrates a lack of creativity (i.e. a ‘cut-and-paste job’). Properly cite all sources and use a consistent bibliographic format. Do not forfeit a course credit because of an error which leads to charges of plagiarism.
Diagrams, maps, and other supporting material must be referenced within the text (i.e. mention them) and cited (i.e. specify the information source) in order to make them relevant.
Summary and Conclusion
Recapitulate your opinion (if necessary) and summarize the main points and/or supporting evidence. Ensure that the conclusion is clearly stated and that it does not contradict the statements and arguments previously presented. Avoid abrupt or incomplete conclusions.