This article covers a sample solution to a nursing assignment about the Influence of Jean Watson’s Theory on Nursing Practice.
Jean Watson\’s influence on nursing practice is significant. As all theorists do, she has a perspective through which she views nursing care and practice. This activity will help frame the guiding principles of University of Phoenix curriculum through the application of theory-based thinking.
Describe the five patterns of knowledge and how they can be applied in nursing practice.
Summarize the main points of Jean Watson\’s theory of human caring, including the 10 carative factors.
Determine how Jean Watson views the following patterns of knowledge:
Explain which pattern(s) are more evident or easier to apply in Watson\’s theory of human caring, citing specific examples to support your explanation.
Reflect on how you may (or do) use caring science in practice, and cite a practice scenario in which you could or do apply the theory to patient care.
Cite a minimum of two in-text sources, and include a page or slide with APA-formatted references, depending on how you format your assignment.
These resources may be helpful:
Sitzman, K., & Watson, J. (2013). Caring science, mindful practice : Implementing watson\’s human caring theory. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
Peart, J. & MacKinnon, K. (October/December 2018). Cultivating praxis through Chinn and Kramer\’s emancipatory knowing. Advances in Nursing Science, 41(4), 351-358. doi:
Snyder, M. (2014). Emancipatory knowing: Empowering nursing students toward reflection and action. The Journal of Nursing Education, 53(2), 65. doi:10.3928/01484834-20140107-01
On page 45 in McKenna and Murphy (2014), there is mention of how emancipatory knowing (sociopolitical considerations) was added later to Carper\’s original work related to patterns of knowledge/knowing. Consider why this pattern was added and does it make sense in today\’s social and political climate? How might you consider these issues as you work on your assignment?
McKenna, H., Pajnkihar, M., Murphy, F. (2014). Fundamentals of nursing models, theories, and practice. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Influence of Jean Watson’s Theory on Nursing Practice
The central concept in nursing is caring. Caring constitutes care for also care about clients. In holistic nursing, care for clients is associated with professional expertise and knowledge while care about clients is related to spiritual and psychological clients’ consideration. Endorsing Watson’s theory of human caring in directing nursing practice is one of the ways of ensuring that caring is core to the experience of the patients. According to Riegel et al. (2018), Watson’s human care theory states that it is necessary to have compassionate care ideals maintained by society.
This is pertinent since, in day to day, treatments proliferate, and there are radical healing practices that neglect the human aspect involving genuine care. Watson proposes a logic of thought that, by education, can be developed when formation spaces activate motivation for thought molding for it to handle the necessary humanistic dimensions. Nurses require scientific and artistic knowledge as well as expertise so that they can care for the patients. Nursing education is essential in acquiring and advancing caring attributes. This should, therefore, be emphasized throughout the professional lives of nurses. This essay, therefore, gives the importance and exploration of Jean Watson’s theory as it relates to the nursing practice. Details of the applicability of this theory of human caring are also given.
The Five Patterns of Knowledge and Their Application in Nursing Practice
The patterns of knowledge are empirical, aesthetic, personnel, ethical, and emancipatory knowledge (Escobar-Castellanos, & Sanhueza-Alvarado, 2018). These patterns are distinguished depending on the kind of logical meaning, and though indivisible, they can be separately used. When the care practice is developed, they are wholly integrated. While being applied in the nursing practice, they have a deliberate and rational contribution to clinical decision making.
Beginning with empirical knowledge, it refers to the science of nursing or theoretical foundation. In this knowledge pattern, general laws and theories explain, describe, and foresee phenomena of specific concern for the nursing discipline. Its outcomes contribute different practical and theoretical elements that let laying the grounds of professional practice to improve on the provided quality of care.
The second pattern is esthetic knowledge and considers nursing as an art. An experience in aesthetic knowledge denotes creating and or appreciating particular or singular expressions of subjective possibilities, either real or imaginary, that develop from the overall prognosis of language. Aesthetic creation in nursing requires abstraction, interventions of care, and attitudes developed by nurses while responding to the people. With aesthetic knowledge, the immediate nurse-patient encounter is transformed into a perception that provides meaning and displays the nurse’s action.
Personal knowledge as the third pattern relates to the nurse-patient relationship. It is essential and requires personal knowledge development hence being the most difficult to teach and command. However, it is the most important in understanding what health means and the well-being of an individual. The interpersonal process for nursing is achieved by knowing oneself and understanding others, to establish therapeutic relations favoring the health of an individual.
Next is the fourth pattern is known as ethical knowing on what constitutes the right actions for that patient. It establishes respect and commitment to human life, supports individual decision-making in both complex and challenging situations. Though they do not answer the questions on moral issues of challenging personal choice, the professions’ moral and ethical codes allow guiding the nurses’ ethical-professional conduct on the enforced primary principles of life preservation suffering alleviation, and health promotion.
The fifth and last pattern is emancipatory knowing, which embraces sociopolitical considerations. It allows learning nursing social and political contexts and practice of healthcare by knowing that there are social barriers that are serious and affect the health and well-being if the people. This process of knowledge is developed by practicing. These knowledge patterns, though not part of the theory, they give the meaning of nursing and nursing practice.
Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring, Including the 10 Carative Factors
Reviewing nurses caring for behavior and patients satisfaction helps in improving nursing quality. Among other concepts of Jean Watson’s theory include rational caring for oneself and others, multiple knowing ways, and reflective approach. The reflective approach comprises an understanding of self through reflection, understanding the clients as a person, and understanding their needs. Watson states that caring is nursing’s moral ideal, whereby it ends at protection. (Pajnkihar et al., 2017).
The ten carative factors of Watson are as follows:
The first carative factor is to practice equanimity and loving-kindness within the caring consciousness context. The second is to be reliably present and enabling. Cultivating own transpersonal self and spiritual practices are the third carative factor. The fourth one is to develop and sustain a relationship that is authentic caring, and helping-trusting. The fifth carative factor is to be present to and helpful of positive and negative feelings expression.
While creative use of self and every method of knowing as part of the process of caring is the sixth carative factor, to engage in honest teaching-learning experience is the seventh carative factor. In the eighth carative factor, all level healing environment is created. This carative factor potentiates beauty, wholeness, dignity, comfort, and peace. The ninth carative factor is to assist with basic needs with an intentional caring consciousness and administer compassionate care prerequisites that potentiate mind-body-spirit alignment, also the fullness of all care aspects. Lastly is to open and attend to mysterious scopes of one’s life-death. These are guidelines for driving love-centered caring practice into action.
Jean Watson Views on the Patterns of Knowledge
Having a better comprehension of the patterns of knowledge enables the nurses to be aware of the diversity and complexity of nursing knowledge. The empirical knowledge gives systematic explanations. These explanations are also controllable by real evidence. On the other hand, aesthetics knowing is bred by the daily actions that are performed by the nurses. This art of nursing entails care, respect, advocacy, and appreciation concepts within it. Concerning proper knowledge, it is an implement that allows nurses to untangle what is right from what is wrong based on the nurses’ duties and obligations.
The ethnicity of a nurse while assessing the surrounding circumstance increases with an increase in the nurses’ sensitivity in the justification process governing their actions. When it comes to personal knowledge, it consists of the knowledge that one gathers from experience. Communication forms an essential part of personal knowledge. Management of personal knowledge affects productivity and management of organizational knowledge (Torabi & El-Den, 2017).
For emancipatory knowledge, it encompasses viewing information in an inverted way with the government at the beginning and the individual at the end. Nurses require social-political knowledge of their working area for them to understand the system they are involved in.
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Knowledge Pattern Easier to Apply in Watson’s Theory and Personal Reflections
The question of which the five knowledge patterns are easier to apply using Jean Watson’s theory is an issue that continues to be of interest to nursing scholars. The connection between Carper’s patterns and evidence-based practice points to the fact that nursing practice is a predominantly theory-guided, evidence-based, meaning empirical knowledge is the one that is mostly used. Watson, in her works, avers that applying scientific problem-solving forms the bedrock of the structure of nursing care and surpasses the limited interpretation of both knowledge and method.
Insightful reflections would indicate that empirical knowledge honors subjective phenomena that are unknown. Scientific data, conceptual problems as well as theories. Research studies in nursing exist which link Watson’s Theory and Pain Theory. Some scholars state that is the Caring theory and Pain theory are congruent in that bot both concentrate on the human experience in a subjective way as they delve into the internal process of life and the real meaning of these experiences.
Considering that nursing scholars have proposed the Attending Nurse Caring Model, this assertion underpins how trained nurses utilize caring science with the model incorporating theory, evidence in addition to advanced caring and healing therapeutics (La Fond et al., 2016). Specifically, the model’s implementation in a children’s hospital used evidence to define clinical problems and effective use in pain management.
Why Emancipatory Knowing was added to Caper’s Patterns of Knowledge
In Caper’s original works, the researcher had focused more on the basic patterns of knowing as covering empirical, personal, aesthetic, and ethical dimensions. However, according to Bickford (2014), the human ability to acknowledge the social and political challenges of inequity was lacking. There was, therefore, a need to have a creative process to critique and imagine comprising of analysis of situations and put forward possibilities that can make the situation in context more equitable and just hence the addition of emancipatory knowledge pattern as the fifth component in Caper’s four patterns.
As indicated, emancipatory knowing, therefore, offers a raft of other dimensions like critical questions, formal expressions, creative processes of critiquing and imagining, and authentication processes. With parts of the world that have experienced colonialism from European countries, nursing practice was also impacted in that leading scholars developed what is known as the post-colonial theory to refer to the theoretical and empirical work that focusses on the issues stemming from colonial relations and their effects.
In contemporary healthcare, concepts like race, racialization, culture, and essentialism form some of the many issues that the contemporary nurse has to address as they offer to patients from culturally diverse and ethnic backgrounds who expect to serve without bias. In recognition of the role played by race, ethnicity, culture, and other post-colonial concepts in determining how populations access healthcare, it has become imperative for trained nursing professionals to have multicultural competence. As a nurse professional in the 2020s and beyond, these issues play a significant in determining the level of patient satisfaction and patient outcomes since nursing care has to be patient-focused and evidence-based.
In conclusion, it is important to remind individuals who are already in nursing and those aspiring to join the profession that the defining characteristic of these professionals is their desire to care for fellow human beings. The term caring usually stands for a nurse’s soft skills in a healthcare system that expects nurses to spend more time in other duties like documentation, technical work, and other responsibilities instead of offering quality care to both patients and their families. As a result, the success of any nurse should be guided by Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring for all professionals seeking to accord patients with quality care that addresses their health needs and respects the values and preferences regardless of the society whey they come from.
Bickford, D. (2014). Post-colonial theory, nursing knowledge, and the development of emancipatory knowing. Advances in nursing science, 37(3), 213-223.
Escobar-Castellanos, B., & Sanhueza-Alvarado, O. (2018). Patrones de conocimiento de Carper y expresión en el cuidado de enfermería. Enfermería: Cuidados Humanizados, 7(1), 27-42.
LaFond, C. M., Vincent, C. V. H., Corte, C., Hershberger, P. E., Johnson, A., Park, C. G., & Wilkie, D. J. (2015). PICU nurses’ pain assessments and intervention choices for virtual human and written vignettes. Journal of pediatric nursing, 30(4), 580-590.
Pajnkihar, M., Štiglic, G., & Vrbnjak, D. (2017). The concept of Watson’s carative factors in nursing and their (dis) harmony with patient satisfaction. PeerJ, 5, e2940.
Riegel, F., Crossetti, M. D. G. O., & Siqueira, D. S. (2018). Contributions of Jean Watson’s theory to holistic critical thinking of nurses. Revista Brasileira de enfermagem, 71(4), 2072-2076.
Torabi, F., & El-Den, J. (2017). The impact of knowledge management on organizational productivity: A case study on Koosar Bank of Iran. Procedia Computer Science, 124, 300-310.
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