Note :I need to demonstrate my ability to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of arguments.
About 90 words for each questions
One refrence each questions- Harvard Style
The questions have been highlited in red
1-Classic Realism: The Cold War
Classic Realism is limited in ways but can also have powerful and important views in international relations. Among many other theories, realism can also be viewed with many façades; one with ‘power’ and two with ‘emphasis’ on anarchy and the balance of power (Burchill et al 2013, p.32). Accentuating Realism on International Politics are imposed by human selfishness ‘egoism’ and absences of the international governments ‘anarchy’, resulting in power and security through political lives (Burchill et al 2013, p.32 – 33). With the emphasis of Realism, this was portrayed in the Cold War.
The Cold War began after World War 2, due to the collapses in the Grand Alliance between the US, Britain and the Soviet Union. Although there is no real clear date to when the conflict started, the Cold War was an important historical feature of rivalries between the Soviet Union and the United States (Bisley, N 2007, p.282). However, this didn’t drive conflict on international relations, this had geopolitically influenced conflict between many nations around the world (Bisley, N 2007, p.282). Whilst this conflict grew between these nations, both nations could have destroyed the planet with their nuclear weapons, resulting in disputes on ‘Security’ (Bisley, N 2007, p.282).
While commencement of plans post-war commenced, tensions between the USSR and US already began to emerge. This was felt between other allied leaders at the Yalta conference in February 1945, where US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin assembled (Bisley, N 2007, p.283).
As World War 2 concluded, this conflict didn’t stop many wars indirectly caused by USSR and US conflict in Korea, Vietnam and Afghanistan. Many saw these wars as ‘cold’ due to near misses in Cuba in 1962(Bisley, N 2007, p.282). Tensions grew as the Soviet Union tested a nuclear bomb resulting in formation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) (Bisley, N 2007, p.283).
Currently we have similar tensions with North Korea and China though testing of their nuclear weapons by insinuating threats to neighbouring nations such as the United States, Japan and European countries.
Is the ‘Cold War’ continuing in modern today and how can all allied nations protect themselves against this continuing threat of nuclear war?
2-Globalisation was led by the United States whom controlled most of the worlds industry, with the introduction of the Marshall plan leading into the beginning of U.S. hegemonic interests and prosperity during the Cold War (Brown & Ainley 2005, p. 128). Also led and supported by the U.S. was the creation of the United Nations (Mazrui 1996, p. 37). Ironically, as globalisation truly takes hold, one of its key effects has been the decline of U.S. power, and increased threat to U.S. hegemony and culture (Brown & Ainley 2005, p. 179). The body has indeed become involved in peacekeeping operations, directly avoiding escalation of conflict and direct war, yet mostly only where there has been evident economic or other self-interest to U.N. members (Peck 2009, p. 415). These selective styled interventions have increasingly led to worsening situations, due to the lack of political will in the absence of obvious gain for U.N. member states (Brown & Ainley 2005, p. 13). Economic power has through globalisation come to overshadow military power, encouraged by open trade, economic growth has taken centre stage in world power and influence (Felice 1999, p. 586). This has exploited the U.N. and its weakness of the veto vote, often abused by member states, whom have the power to ignore international law when convenient to their own self-interest or gain (Brown & Ainley 2005, p. 119). The effects of globalisation on the U.N. have not been addressed, and has left it powerless to hold these nations to account, and it is under threat of losing its relevance if it does not modernise (Felice 1999, p. 587). Regional reliance of states on co-operation for trade and economic stability is another trend fostered by globalisation, and has further weakened states resolve in sanctioning emerging powers such as China, due to the economic risk involved (Boer 1996, p. 102).
Is the U.N. losing its relevance in the globalised world, and does it need to be modernised or even entirely replaced?
3-Poverty exists in most developed and undeveloped countries (Blowfield 2007). According to Maertens, Colen & Swinnen (2011), there is disagreement between researchers on the most efficient way to test the effects of globalisation on poverty. As stated by Blowfield (2007), a useful theory to substantiate poverty is the sustainable livelihoods theory, involving asset assessment and economic, environment and social backlashes. In the eyes of Vladimir Lenin, capitalism is the cause of poverty (Blowfield 2007). Maertens, Colen & Swinnen (2011) described Senegal’s expanded tomato exports to assist in the reduction of poverty in Senegal, and so that labour markets would flourish with globalisation. However, vigilance must be practiced for sustainability with global economics (Maertens et al. 2011). Globalisation has many discontents, for example, the election of Donald Trump, the Brexit vote, and nationalism among Europeans. Religion is a discontent concerning globalism, as not all religions will merge. However, the plurality of cultures without religions might be more welcoming. Globalisation is promoted by most elites, yet one discontent is that the average citizen has little regard for the benefits of globalisation (Globalisation and its discontents: Why there’s a backlash and how it needs to change 2016). Immigration has adverse effects on globalisation; people are discontent concerning immigrants who segregate themselves in poverty in foreign countries. Globalisation does not reduce world poverty (Blowfield 2007). However, the reduction of poverty focuses the economic hopes of developed nations concerning globalisation, which advantages countries like the U.S, Russia and China. In contrast, in the least developed countries, e.g., Latin America, certain regions of Africa, Honduras, and the Middle East poverty is an ongoing event (Gindling & Terrel 2010; Nissanke Thorbecke 2010; Maertens Colen Swinnen 2011).
Question: Will certain cultures be more prone to poverty with the growing economic global system?
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