Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

This article covers NURS 6630 Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience.

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NURS 6630 Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

NURS 6630 Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

A psychiatric nurse practitioner’s need for a strong foundation in fundamental neuroscience is almost self-evident. To effectively treat and diagnose patients, it is necessary to understand not only the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, but also how medications for these disorders affect the central nervous system. These fundamental concepts of neuroscience can be difficult to grasp. As such, this Discussion is intended to encourage you to think critically about these concepts, to articulate your reasoning, and to deepen your understanding through interaction with your colleagues.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Cultura RF

For this Discussion, review the Learning Resources and reflect on the concepts of foundational neuroscience as they might apply to your role as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner in prescribing medications for patients.

By Day 3 of Week 2 of NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience

Post a response to each of the following:

  1. Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents, including how partial and inverse agonist functionality may impact the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatments.

Drugs are absorbed and the mechanism process depends on an individual. Every individual reacts to drugs in different ways hence extra care must be considered when prescribing drugs. An agonist is a medication that mimics the action of the signal ligand by binding to and activating a receptor. On the other hand, an antagonist is a medication that typically binds to a receptor without activating them, but instead, decreases the receptors’ ability to be activated by another agonist. Drugs have many ways or different mechanisms of interacting at pharmacological subtypes of G-protein linked receptors that occur across an agonist spectrum without agonist, with agonists, antagonists, inverse agonist and partial agonist (Van den Houvel 2014). If the medication is not linked to receptors that must be linked with for an effect to occur, then the pharmacological effect which is expected fails and a different alternative must be tried.

  1. Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.

G-coupled proteins and Ion-gated channels are cascades triggered by neurotransmitters which act via transduction cascades that pass messages from a first extracellular messenger to a second intracellular messenger (Mclnemey 2014). According to Mclnemey (2014), the common action of psychotropic drugs mostly used in clinical practice is to modify the actions of G-protein-linked receptors which results in either therapeutic response or side effects. Therefore, G-protein-linked receptors act along an agonist spectrum, hence drugs prescribed can produce conformational changes in these receptors to create any state such as full agonist, partial agonist, silent antagonist, or inverse agonist. According to Stern et al. (2016), Ion channels act by controlling iron firing, synaptic proteins which regulate synaptic efficacy and cytoskeletal elements.

  1. Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.

Epigenetics happens when there is a change in gene function without any code alteration. Change in the structure of DNA is known to be caused by epigenetics and most often it is hereditary (Stern et al., 2016). According to Stern et al. (2016), this gene alterations which also affects chromatin structure changes can be treatable with medicines that affect chromatic structures. Van den Houvel (2014) states that the expression or silencing of genes may determine how some neurons function properly versus how others malfunction, and why they are truly neurons rather than another type of cell. Because of the process of certain genes are targeted by certain receptors and neurons, therefore neurotransmission, drugs, genes, and the environment all work together in regulating which genes are expressed or silenced, as well as which genes determine the whole person.

  1. As part of NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience, Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to patients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a patient in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.

Having knowledge on how the body works is very important in prescribing medication safely and effectively. It is important to understand how certain medication bind with certain receptors and the expected effects. It is crucially important that the psychiatric mental health practitioner (PMHNP) understands the basic action of psychotropic medications with neurotransmitters as well as transmission across receptors and neurons. It is important to understand that ions-gated receptors create a fast cascade of reaction necessary in quick actions that occur with the administration of benzodiazepines in the management of anxiety. It is also crucial to understand that G-protein linked acts in a slower cascade of initiation in the necessary with the management of depression If the medication is supposed to work as a blocking agent or as an activating agent while increasing the expected effect, it is very imperative to keep into consideration into all these information when prescribing medication. A good example is when you have a patient with mood changes and in this case, mood stabilizer medication is required to target the behavior. Knowing the action of mood stabilizers therefore is important because through that knowledge of understanding the patient needs and the intervention to target the need is very essential.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 2 of NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one of the following ways:

  • If your colleagues’ posts influenced your understanding of these concepts, be sure to share how and why. Include additional insights you gained.
  • If you think your colleagues might have misunderstood these concepts, offer your alternative perspective and be sure to provide an explanation for them. Include resources to support your perspective.

Thank you for your great discussion post; you were so detailed here. I will be glad to add that neuroscience is the study of the nervous system including its structure, development, degeneration, functions both in health and in a disease state

According to Rosenthal and Burcham (2021), agonists are drugs that mimic the actions of endogenous regulatory molecules, whereas the antagonist action is produced when the drug blocks the action of the endogenous regulatory molecules. I also agree with you that every individual reacts to drugs differently; hence extra care must be considered when prescribing drugs. However, the effect a partial agonist can produce is lower than that of a full agonist. Partial agonist med they are also referred to as agonists-antagonists (Katzung et al., 2019). Epigenetics studies human behaviors and how the environment causes changes that affect them. The study of epigenetics is essential in the healthcare industry. This will help advanced nurse practitioners to understand how human behavior and environment interact to affect the genetic make-up of a person. It will also enable the providers to make the right diagnosis and also the right treatment. Understanding the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of drugs will prevent prescription medication; however, the study will lead to the right practices. Thank you.

NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience References

Katzung, B. G., Hall, M. K., & Trevor, A. J. (2019). Katzung & Trevor’s Pharmacology

            Examination & Board Review (12th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced

St. Louis, MO: Elsevier            practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.).

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 2 Discussion Rubric

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Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience
Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Post by Day 3 of Week 2 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 2

To Participate in this Discussion:

NURS 6630 Discussion Foundational Neuroscience

What’s Coming Up in Week 3?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will explore medication adherence and strategies to help overcome non-adherence to pharmacotherapeutics. You will also complete a Quiz that addresses the content covered throughout this module.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Week 3

 Week 2: Neurotransmitters and Receptor Theory

Receptors and neurotransmitters are like a lock-and-key system. Just as it takes the right key to open a specific lock, it takes the right neurotransmitter to bind to a specific receptor. Not surprisingly, as it concerns psychopharmacology, the pharmacotherapeutics that are prescribed must trigger the release of certain neurotransmitters that bind to the correct receptors in order to elicit a favorable response for the patient. The mechanism of this binding and the response that follows reflects receptor theory and lies at the foundation of pharmacology.

This week, you will continue your examination of neuroanatomy and neuroscience as you engage with you colleagues in a Discussion. You will also explore the potential impacts of foundational neuroscience on the prescription of pharmacotherapeutics.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents
  • Compare the actions of g couple proteins to ion gated channels
  • Analyze the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action
  • Analyze the impact of foundational neuroscience on the prescription of medications

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

Camprodon, J. A., & Roffman, J. L. (2016). Psychiatric neuroscience: Incorporating pathophysiology into clinical case formulation. In T. A. Stern, M. Favo, T. E. Wilens, & J. F. Rosenbaum. (Eds.), Massachusetts General Hospital psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics (pp. 1–19). Elsevier.

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

The University of British Columbia. (n. d.). Neuroanatomy videos. http://neuroanatomy.ca/videos.html

Note: Please review all of the media under the neuroanatomy series.

Optional Resources (click to expand/reduce)

Pathopharmacology: Disorders of the Nervous System: Exploring the Human Brain

Dr. Norbert Myslinski reviews the structure and function of the human brain. Using human brains, he examines and illustrates the development of the brain and areas impacted by disorders associated with the brain. (15m)

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Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience
Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Introduction to Advanced Pharmacology

In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse. (6m)

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Content

Name: NURS_6630_Week2_Discussion_Rubric

 ExcellentPoint range: 90–100GoodPoint range: 80–89FairPoint range: 70–79PoorPoint range: 0–69
Main Posting:Response to the Discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.Points Range: 40 (40%) – 44 (44%)Thoroughly responds to the Discussion question(s).Is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.No less than 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.Supported by at least three current credible sources.Points Range: 35 (35%) – 39 (39%)Responds to most of the Discussion question(s).Is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.50% of the post has exceptional depth and breadth.Supported by at least three credible references.Points Range: 31 (31%) – 34 (34%)Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).One to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.Post is cited with fewer than two credible references.Points Range: 0 (0%) – 30 (30%)Does not respond to the Discussion question(s).Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.Contains only one or no credible references.
Main Posting:WritingPoints Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%)Written clearly and concisely.Contains no grammatical or spelling errors.Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)Written concisely.May contain one to two grammatical or spelling errors.Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)Written somewhat concisely.May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.Contains some APA formatting errors.Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)Not written clearly or concisely.Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.
Main Posting:Timely and full participationPoints Range: 9 (9%) – 10 (10%)Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.Posts main Discussion by due date.Points Range: 8 (8%) – 8 (8%)Posts main Discussion by due date.Meets requirements for full participation.Points Range: 7 (7%) – 7 (7%)Posts main Discussion by due date.Points Range: 0 (0%) – 6 (6%)Does not meet requirements for full participation.Does not post main Discussion by due date.
First Response:Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.Points Range: 9 (9%) – 9 (9%)Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.Responds to questions posed by faculty.The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.Points Range: 8 (8%) – 8 (8%)Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.Points Range: 7 (7%) – 7 (7%)Response is on topic, may have some depth.Points Range: 0 (0%) – 6 (6%)Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.
First Response:
Writing
Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%)Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.Response is written in Standard, Edited English.Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.Few or no credible sources are cited.Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.Response to faculty questions are missing.No credible sources are cited.
First Response:
Timely and full participation
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.Posts by due date.Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)Meets requirements for full participation.Posts by due date.Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)Posts by due date.Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)Does not meet requirements for full participation.Does not post by due date.
Second Response:
Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.
Points Range: 9 (9%) – 9 (9%)Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.Responds to questions posed by faculty.The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.Points Range: 8 (8%) – 8 (8%)Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.Points Range: 7 (7%) – 7 (7%)Response is on topic, may have some depth.Points Range: 0 (0%) – 6 (6%)Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.
Second Response:
Writing
Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%)Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.Response is written in Standard, Edited English.Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.Few or no credible sources are cited.Points Range: 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.Response to faculty questions are missing.No credible sources are cited.
Second Response:
Timely and full participation
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.Posts by due date.Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)Meets requirements for full participation.Posts by due date.Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)Posts by due date.Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)Does not meet requirements for full participation.Does not post by due date.
Total Points: 100
Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Name: NURS_6630_Week2_Discussion_Rubric

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