Please provide  a rebuttal in an AMA format. Please write 200 words.

please use one reference. Thank you.


Please respond to this-


Ethics is a system of standards applied to medical research to ensure the study is well-designed, has integrity, and protects the individuals involved. Ethical research is critical when human subjects are included. The safety of research subjects should be as important as the significance of the study. Ethics ensure that researchers do not compromise the health and well-being of their subjects while completing their study. Throughout history, several examples of research did not meet ethical guidelines for human subjects. As a result, the individuals involved were manipulated and inevitably harmed by the conducted research.

The Tuskegee Syphilis study was an example of a gross ethics violation in medical research.1 In this study, disadvantaged African American men were studied for the effects of long-term syphilis. Even when treatment was developed and readily available, it was withheld from the research participants. Ethically speaking, their involvement in the study was financially driven to some degree. The subjects were incentivized to participate, and informed consent was not obtained. Syphilis treatment could have drastically changed the course of these participants’ lives. Instead, the researchers in this study withheld curative therapy for these individuals, thus causing direct harm.

Another example of a severe ethical violation is the Willowbrook Hepatitis study.2 In this study, disabled children were exposed to hepatitis to study the effects of the illness. This study lasted more than 10 years, and given that the infection rate was high at the school anyway due to poor conditions, intentional exposure was deemed appropriate. This, again, is another example of how medical research failed its subjects. As with all research, there are possible risks; however, knowingly infecting mentally disabled individuals with a devastating disease is unacceptable.

Informed consent is a fundamental component of research. Participants must be aware of a research study’s potential risks and benefits. Informed consent is not met just by explaining to a subject what the research entails; the individual must understand their involvement and possible complications in-depth. Consent is necessary to ensure a research subject fully comprehends the intended study. Informed consent allows participants to agree to or deny the proposed treatment and empowers them to accept the associated risks with the planned research.

Over the years, there has been significant improvement in the ethics of medical research. Today, research must be a minimal risk to patients, and subjects must be made aware of all possible complications associated. Over the years, the change in ethical guidelines was necessary to uphold research integrity and protect involved individuals. In addition, informed consent has been developed to ensure that subjects genuinely understand the why, how, and what of their participation.


1. The syphilis study at Tuskegee timeline. CDC. December 5, 2022. Accessed March 4, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm

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