review for a exam of Advanced Pathophysiology

1. Understand epigenetics and DNA methylation

2. Electrolyte disturbances, including causes, diagnosis and treatment

-Metabolic alkalosis

-Respiratory alkalosis

-Metabolic acidosis

-Respiratory acidosis

-Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, and Phosphate

3. Elements of formal genetics

4. Lead consumption adverse reaction to organs

5. Most common cause of cellular injury

6. Relationship of hyponatremia and diuretics

7. Cellular death

8. Multifactorial disorders

9. The Cell Cycle

10. Cellular adaptation

1. Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and metaplasia

2. Maladaptive cellular change

11. Cellular structure and function of organelles

a. Nucleolus

b. mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosomes, etc

12. Cellular metabolism

13. Cellular membrane transport

Understand the Sodium- Potassium pump

14. Four major types of genetic diseases

a. Examples of recessive inheritance conditions

b. Hemoglobin types in Sickle Cell

15. Physiological effects of acute emotional stress

16. Genes related to Breast Cancer, Pancreatitis and Diabetes

17. Mitochondria, ATP and process of catabolism

18. Edema

19. Diffusion and osmosis

20. Hypernatremia and hyponatremia

21. Chromosomal Aberrations

a. Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy

b. Turner syndrome

22. Oncotic pressure

23. Water balance and ADH

24. Homeostasis

25. Concepts of Incidence and Prevalence

26. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system

27. Epigenetics and cancer

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