Help me study for my Psychology class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Write a brief essay on one of the following question topics. The submit your essay two places: (1) in here in the module, and then (2) post it in the discussion board.

    • Essays must be at least 500 words and be thoughtful and original to earn full credit (see penalties for plagiarism in your student handbook).
    • Essays must be well-written to earn full credit. Check for typos, use topic sentences to start out each paragraph, have an introductory paragraph and a conclusion paragraph. Here is a site with some tips on writing a good essay: https://www.time4writing.com/articles-about-writing/writing-resourcespersuasive-essay/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
    • These essays are automatically submitted to plagiarism detection software when you summit them – consequences for plagiarizing any part of this essay will result in you earning a “0” for the entire assignment. You may also be reported to the board of student conduct. See your syllabus for additional penalties for cheating/plagiarism.
    • Your essay must not contain anything factually inaccurate (depending on the severity of the inaccuracies, you may not earn any credit for your essay), so make sure your facts are coming from the textbook or some other reputable source (be wary information you find on the web, only use scholarly sources like peer-reviewed journal articles or .edu/.gov websites when writing this essay). These essays should not be based solely on your opinion – you should seek reputable sources to cite, including your textbook.
    • I don’t have a required number of references, but it would be difficult to write a good essay without finding information on the topic from some source. If any information in this essay comes from an outside source, even an idea or fact that you paraphrased, make sure to properly cite that source in your essay.
    • If you use outside sources in your essay, do not use direct quotes. Instead, paraphrase from the original source and then cite that source using APA format.
    • You must use APA format to site your sources in-text and provide references at the end of your essay. If you don’t have an APA manual, you can use the Purdue Owl Website (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/1/(Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.).
    • Make sure to paste the question stem first, so I know which question your essay pertains to.
    • Immediately after uploading the assignment here, post your essay in the discussion board for your group.

A good resource for help with writing/proof-reading this paper: Troy University pays for all students to have access to tutoring at no cost to the student. Net Tutor (found on the left of the screen) will read over your paper and give you feedback, as long as you submit it to them a week before the due date. I highly recommend taking advantage of this. Send the tutor the essay instructions so that they know what to check for when reviewing your paper.

Essay optional questions (choose only one question):

Essay options from Ch 1

  • Some people reject evolution because some organs are too complex to have appeared abruptly by chance. What is wrong with this argument? Answers should point out that organs do not appear overnight. Their evolution is a very slow process that takes many generations. Students should give and explain examples, such as the eye and brain.
  • Why is natural selection helpful to species, but not to individuals? This point is covered in the query on p. 22 of the text. Students should note that natural selection produces changes across generations, not within a given individual.
  • Are humans still evolving? How could you prove that they are or are not? Answers should point to concrete examples that are observable and measurable.

Essay options from Ch 2

  • Explain the difference between within-subject and between-subjects experiments, and come up with an original example experiment of each type. For each study you describe, you should describe your IV, your DV, participants, the purpose of the studies, and exactly how they would be conducted from start to finish.
  • You are studying cocaine addiction in rats. An animal rights activist accuses you of animal cruelty. How can you defend your work?

Essay options from Ch 3/4

  • How do the experiments of Carolyn and Arthur Staats help us understand prejudice? Answers should describe the Staats work and relate that to everyday instances of prejudice, most of which are probably acquired at least partly through verbal conditioning.

  • What are the practical implications of Siegel’s work for people who use narcotic drugs? Students should discuss the dangers of using drugs under different circumstances and, since subtle, unnoticed differences may prove fatal, the merits of discontinuing the use of narcotic drugs entirely.

Essay options from Ch 5

  • Your text says that the law of effect implies that our environment is constantly “talking” to us. What does this mean? The idea is that our surroundings provide feedback about what we do. In a sense, it tells us, “Yes, that was good. Do that again” or, “No. That was a mistake. Don’t do it again.” Give several examples of positive and negative reinforcement from your own life Describe the behavior that changed, the positive or negative reinforcer, and how this is an example of positive or negative reinforcement.

  • Explain how shaping works. How does it relate to reinforcement? Give an example of how you could use shaping to get your dog to bring you the newspaper. Explain how you used the 5 tips of effective shaping from Chapter 6.

Essay options from Ch 8

  • How is the effectiveness of punishment affected by the availability of reinforcement? Answers might focus on the availability of reinforcement for the punished behavior or on the availability of reinforcement for alternative behaviors.
  • Briefly discuss the problems associated with punishment. Answers should mention at least four of the following: escape, aggression, abuse, apathy, and imitation of the punisher. Students might also discuss ethical problems and public opposition.
  • You have a ten-year-old child who mistreats the family dog. Describe two ways of dealing with this problem without using punishment. Answers should apply two of the alternatives to punishment mentioned in the text: response prevention, extinction, differential reinforcement. Explain what procedure you would use, exactly how you would implement it (be specific), and how your procedure is an example of the process you are using.
  • Researchers have demonstrated that the rate of work-related accidents can be reduced by reinforcing safe practices with bonuses and time off, but why are such efforts necessary? In other words, why do workers not follow safe practices spontaneously since they benefit by avoiding injuries? Answers should include an analysis of potential positive and negative reinforcement and punishment available for compliance AND non-compliance with safety rules with at least four specific and detailed examples (include two examples of reinforcement and two examples of punishment). Describe why each example fits the definition of positive or negative reinforcement or punishment, what behavior changed, and what the reinforcer or punisher was.

Rubric

Essay Rubric

Essay Rubric

Criteria Ratings Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeEssay formatted in APA Style

10.0 pts

Full Marks

0.0 pts

No Marks

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIn-text citations for facts

10.0 pts

Full Marks

0.0 pts

No Marks

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWell-written, in your own words, factually accurate, not based solely on your opinion (find reputable sources for facts)

80.0 pts

Full Marks

0.0 pts

No Marks

80.0 pts

Total Points: 100.0

 

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