I’m studying for my Psychology class and need an explanation.

Q1:

Chapter 1 Discussion Question – Chapter discussion groups_4 2

Discussion Points are awarded for comments that · reflect that you have read the required text and readings · that you have prepared the discussion questions in advance · that you have thought about the content · that you have attempted to understand the readings · and that you are able to apply the content to “real life.” In other words, quality comments reflect effort, accuracy, and thoroughness. If you do not understand the material, you can still earn participation points by demonstrating that you have made an effort to understand the material and that you have read the text. Trying to struggle with and figure out the information merits points. I expect you to make posts that directly address all parts of the discussion questions as well as respond to others’ postings. Points awarded for responses to others’ postings will be awarded using the same criteria as original posts (see above, see syllabus).

You will not earn points for posts/replies that do not meet the above criteria or for posts/replies that simply reflect information from your personal life without incorporating specific concepts and understanding of the chapter.

Your reply should focus on enhancing your peer’s discussion and not on the organization or if you enjoyed reading it. This can be mentioned but should not be the focus. Further, you will not earn points by simply stating that you agree or disagree with a classmate without fully supporting your opinion with concepts from the course material. Your peer response must enhance your peer’s post while incorporating concepts from the course material directly related to the discussion question.

Please review the discussion board guidelines.

This link connects you to Canvas help regarding how to post to a discussion board

Required: Three posts per chapter.

  • Post 1: Address the following: What was the most challenging part of the chapter for you to grasp?
  • Post 2 & 3: Select 2 topics from those below. Post 2 & 3 must be a minimum of 350 words combined. (approx 175 words each).

Required: Two responses to peers’ posts per chapter. Peer responses must be a minimum of 125-150 words for each peer response.

  • One of your peer responses must address your peer’s posts 2 or 3 which address the general chapter topics reviewed below (word minimum 125-150 words). See the discussion guidelines for additional instruction.
  • Your second peer response may either address your peer’s posts 2 or 3, or you may elect to address your peer’s Post 1 (what they found challenging), however please note that if you respond to Post 1 you are required to attempt to clarify misunderstandings or areas of confusions expressed by your peer (word minimum 125-150 words). See the discussion guidelines for additional instruction.

Inside your discussion always start by titling your post in bold using one of the topic titles below and then discuss your topic starting on the next line. You will then reply to two of your peers’ posts from either the same or different topic. On the top line of your peer responses write “reply to:” and then the title of the peers’ post to which you are responding. Start your peer response on the next line.

Post 1: What was the most challenging part of the chapter for you to grasp?

Post 2 & 3: Select 2 of the 4 following topics to cover in your discussion

Discussion A) Women pioneers of psychology

•Read Figure 1.2 regarding women pioneers in the history of psychology. Select 2 of these contributors and read the links provided below and briefly review information regarding these women that you found interesting.

•M. Calkins: http://www.feministvoices.com/mary-whiton-calkins/ (Links to an external site.)

•M. Washburn:http (Links to an external site.)://www.feministvoices.com/margaret-floy-washburn (Links to an external site.)

•L. Hollingworth: http://www.feministvoices.com/leta-hollingworth/ (Links to an external site.)

(Links to an external site.)

Discussion B) African American Psychologists

Go to the following website and select two of the 10 psychologists listed. Conduct an internet further search on the two psychologists that you have selected and write about information regarding these individuals that you found interesting. At the end of this write-up please include a a link to the website where you found this additional information regarding the two psychologists that you selected.

https://www.activeminds.org/blog/10-african-african-american-psychologists-you-should-know/ (Links to an external site.)

Discussion C) History of US Latino Psychology

Review the attached handbook (Handbook of U.S. Latino Psychology: Developmental and Community-Based Perspectives) and briefly review information from this document that you found interesting.

Discussion D) History of Asian American Psychology

Review the attached article (History of Asian American Psychology) and briefly review information from this document that you found interesting.

Q2:

Lab Assignment 1: Ethical Behavior in Research

33 unread replies.33 replies.

Lab Session 1 & Lab Assignment 1

APA ethical Guidelines for Research.jpg

Informed Consent

In all forms of human experiments, informed consent is essential. Informed consent includes
informing the participants about the purpose of the experiment, type of data to be collected, nature
of the commitment, who is sponsoring the research, the subject target group and how participants
are selected, potential risks, potential benefits, assurance of confidentiality, the voluntary nature
of participation, the right to withdraw at any time and contact information.

The mistreatment of human subjects in the past led to the development of the The Nuremberg
Code in 1945. This code was developed based on the notion that experiments using human beings
must be conducted within reasonably well-defined bounds and conform to the ethics of the medical
profession. Human experiments are justified when they yield results for the good of society that
are unobtainable by any other method. The basic principles that must be observed include:

  • Voluntary consent
  • By individuals with the legal capacity to give consent,
  • Who have sufficient knowledge and understanding of the nature, duration, purpose,
    method, and any inconveniences or hazards associated with participation.
  • The experiment should be conducted by qualified people, with the goal of yielding results
    that will benefit society
  • And should avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering or injury.

The importance of the results must outweigh the inherent risks to the subjects. The project should
be preceded by careful assessment of predictable risks in comparison with foreseeable benefits.
The interest of the subject must always prevail over the interest of science and society. The rights
of the participants must be respected.

APA Code of Conduct

Psychologists work to develop a body of scientific knowledge based on research. Their goal is to
broaden knowledge of behavior and where applicable, apply this knowledge to improve the
conditions of both the individual and society. While respecting the importance of research,
psychologists also respect the individual rights of people. The APA code of conduct was developed
with the primary goal of protecting the welfare of individuals and groups who participate in
research studies.

There are six general principles of the APA code of conduct:

1. Competence
Psychologists are required to maintain high standards of competence in their work. They need
to recognize the boundaries of their competence and the limitations of their expertise, by
providing only those services for which they are qualified by education, training, or experience.

2. Integrity
Psychologists seek to promote integrity in the science, teaching and practice of psychology.

3. Professional and scientific responsibility
Psychologists uphold professional standards of conduct and clarify their professional roles and
obligations, accept appropriate responsibility for their behavior, and adopt their methods to the
needs of different populations.

4. Respect people’s rights and dignity
Psychologists respect the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, self-determination,
and autonomy within the limits of the law.

5. Concern for the welfare of others
Psychologists seek to contribute to the welfare of those with whom they interact professionally,
by weighing the advantages and disadvantages of conducting research – including the
contribution that the research may make to knowledge and human welfare and the cost of the
research to participants.

6. Social responsibility
Through research, psychologists must strive to advance both human welfare and the science of
psychology.

Ethical Behavior in Research Assignment

Consider the APA Code of Conduct and the guideline for informed consent to evaluate the ethics (see above) involved in the following situations (see below). Post a statement of your view and be sure to include specific examples of how these issues do or don’t violate today’s ethical standards for conducting research. Describe in your post which specific ethical guidelines may have been violated during each of the three studies reviewed below and why. For each post you must mention specific ethical guidelines (more than one). It is not sufficient to say “all of the guidelines are being violated.” You must specify which principals or guidelines are applicable for each situation.

For each of the three topics you are required to make: 1 original post and 1 reply to a peer’s post. Each post must be a minimum of 125 words and each reply must be a minimum of 100 words. Keep in mind that your peer replies are not intended to focus on the quality of your peer’s posts but are intended to enhance your peer’s posts by further elaborating on the topic of ethics in research. This assignment is due by Sunday 6/21/2020; 11:55pm

Lab Assignment 1 grading guidelines

The behavior of Nazi soldiers raised questions concerning human nature. Some claim that only sadistic individuals could commit the atrocious crimes that occurred in the concentration camps. Others claim that the situation was the main influence on how people acted. Many studies have subsequently investigated how personality and situational factors interact to produce behaviors. In some cases, the results of the studies went far beyond what was expected, raising questions concerning the ethics involved in conducting the experiments. One example of an ethically questionable study was performed by Milgram in 1965.

Subjects participated in pairs in a supposed study of learning and memory. Only one member of the pair was an actual subject. The other person was a confederate acting a role. The subject was assigned to the role of the teacher and the confederate was the learner. The teacher and learner were placed in separate rooms. The learner was strapped in a chair to prevent movement and an electrode was placed on his arm. The teacher was placed in an adjoining room that contained an electric shock generator. The experiment required the teacher to teach a list of word pairs and to punish incorrect answers by delivering shocks of increasing intensity.

The teacher sat in front of the shock generator that had switches in 15 volt increments ranging from a 15 volt slight shock up to a 450 volt shock that was several increments past the intensity labeled as “danger, severe shock” and was marked with three red X’s. The teacher was instructed to move to the next level of intensity for each incorrect answer. Although no shocks were actually given, the confederate learner had been trained to act as though the increasingly high intensity shocks were increasingly painful, first through grunts, then cries of pain, and finally through the failure to respond at all. When the teacher questioned the experimenter about continuing, they were instructed to please continue, and then if necessary told more firmly to continue, it was essential to continue, and that they had no choice but to continue. At times, the worried teachers questioned the experimenter about who was responsible for any harmful effects that resulted from shocking the learner at such a high level. Upon receiving the answer that the experimenter assumed full responsibility, teachers seemed to accept the response and continue shocking the learner.

When discussing the experiment with colleagues, students, and middle-class adults, most people predicted that the teacher would disobey the instructions at about 135 volts, and that no one would go beyond 300 volts. In the actual experiment, 63% of the teachers went all the way to 450 volts. Everyday, average people appeared to become obedient to the experimenter, inflicting supposed high levels of pain on virtual strangers. However, this obedience did not come without personal sacrifice. Many subjects were stressed against their will. Many experienced agony in deciding what to do – they sweated, trembled, stuttered, bit their lips, groaned, and even broke into uncontrollable laughter. Although advanced planning justified this experiment, once the submissive side of human nature emerged, the ethics of continuing the experiment became an issue.

For each of the three topics below you are required to make: 1 original post and 1 reply to a peer’s post). This assignment is due by Sunday 6/21/2020; 11:55pm

1. In Nazi Germany, many atrocities against humanity were committed. Many inhumane experiments were conducted – the results of which may be useful today. Should these data be utilized to advance our scientific knowledge or should this information be discarded because of the way in which it was gathered? (1 post, 1 response to peer = 4 points)

2. Read the description of Milgram’s experiment on the previous page. In this experiment subjects were led to believe they were shocking another person at intensities of up to 450 volts. During the procedure they were repeatedly told by the experimenter that they “must continue” and that the “experiment requires that you continue.” The majority of subjects demonstrated full obedience all the way up to the maximum shock intensity. Was this use of deception and coercion ethical? (1 post, 1 response to peer = 4 points)

3. In the 1920’s, Watson and Rayner used a 9-month-old baby to investigate conditioning techniques. These researchers paired a stimulus that produced a fear reaction (loud noise) with a stimulus that did not produced a fear reaction (white rat) to verify whether humans could be conditioned to fear nonthreatening objects. After conditioning Little Albert to fear various objects, the experiment ended abruptly, eliminating the possibility to uncondition the responses. Develop an argument about whether or not the experiment was ethical. (1 post, 1 response to peer = 4 points)



Q3:

Chapter 2 Discussion Question – Chapter discussion groups_4 2

From PSYC-100-OLH-CRN53868

No unread replies.No replies.

Discussion Points are awarded for comments that · reflect that you have read the required text and readings · that you have prepared the discussion questions in advance · that you have thought about the content · that you have attempted to understand the readings · and that you are able to apply the content to “real life.” In other words, quality comments reflect effort, accuracy, and thoroughness. If you do not understand the material, you can still earn participation points by demonstrating that you have made an effort to understand the material and that you have read the text. Trying to struggle with and figure out the information merits points. I expect you to make posts that directly address all parts of the discussion questions as well as respond to others’ postings. Points awarded for responses to others’ postings will be awarded using the same criteria as original posts (see above, see syllabus).

You will not earn points for posts/replies that do not meet the above criteria or for posts/replies that simply reflect information from your personal life without incorporating specific concepts and understanding of the chapter.

Your reply should focus on enhancing your peer’s discussion and not on the organization or if you enjoyed reading it. This can be mentioned but should not be the focus. Further, you will not earn points by simply stating that you agree or disagree with a classmate without fully supporting your opinion with concepts from the course material. Your peer response must enhance your peer’s post while incorporating concepts from the course material directly related to the discussion question.

Please review the discussion board guidelines.

This link connects you to Canvas help regarding how to post to a discussion board

Required: Three posts per chapter.

  • Post 1: Address the following: What was the most challenging part of the chapter for you to grasp?
  • Post 2 & 3: Select 2 topics from those below. Post 2 & 3 must be a minimum of 350 words combined. (approx 175 words each).

Required: Two responses to peers’ posts per chapter. Peer responses must be a minimum of 125-150 words for each peer response.

  • One of your peer responses must address your peer’s posts 2 or 3 which address the general chapter topics reviewed below (word minimum 125-150 words). See the discussion guidelines for additional instruction.
  • Your second peer response may either address your peer’s posts 2 or 3, or you may elect to address your peer’s Post 1 (what they found challenging), however please note that if you respond to Post 1 you are required to attempt to clarify misunderstandings or areas of confusions expressed by your peer (word minimum 125-150 words). See the discussion guidelines for additional instruction.

Inside your discussion always start by titling your post in bold using one of the topic titles below and then discuss your topic starting on the next line. You will then reply to two of your peers’ posts from either the same or different topic. On the top line of your peer responses write “reply to:” and then the title of the peers’ post to which you are responding. Start your peer response on the next line.

Post 1: What was the most challenging part of the chapter for you to grasp?

Post 2 & 3: Select 2 of the 3 following topics to cover in your discussion

Discussion A) Identify Independent and Dependent Variable (address all of the following)

1) What is an Independent Variable (IV)? What is a Dependent Variable (DV)?

2) I park my car illegally at various locations on the Canada College campus and time how long it takes me to get a parking ticket. Identify the following from this example:

  • What is the IV in this example?
  • What is the DV in this example?
  • What other factors may have influenced the DV? What other variables would it be important to control for?

3) Now provide another example and identify the IV and DV and what other factors should be controlled (come up with an original example. Do not use one from your lab manual, powerpoint or textbook)

Discussion B) New Drug Decreased Depression

A researcher tested a new drug designed to decrease depression. She gave it to 100 clinically depressed patients and discovered that their average level of depression, as measured by a standardized depression inventory, declined after 4 months of taking the drug. She concluded that the drug reduces depression.

•Does the evidence support her claim? Why/why not?

•Is there a control or comparison group? Should there be? Why?

•Are there other variables that might account for the results? What are they?

•How would you modify the design of this experiment to improve it (i.e., to improve your confidence in your results).

Discussion C) Comparison of major research methods

Discuss advantages and disadvantages of the major research methods discussed in your chapter.

 

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