principles of safeguarding in health and social care

Outcome 1: Know how to recognise signs of abuse
1.1 define the following types of abuse:
Physical abuse
Physical abuse may involve hitting, spiting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to an individual.

Sexual abuse
Sexual abuse is the forcing of undesired sexual behaviour by one person upon another, indecent exposure, harassment

Financial abuse
Financial abuse is the illegal or unauthorised use of a person’s property, money, pension book or other valuables.

Institutional abuse
Institutional abuse involves failure of an organisation to provide appropriate and professional individual services to vulnerable people. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour that amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness, and stereotyping and rigid systems.

Emotional/psychological Abuse may involve threats or actions to cause mental or physical harm; humiliation; isolation

Self-neglect is a behavioural condition in which an individual neglects to attend to their basic needs, such as personal hygiene, appropriate clothing, feeding, or tending appropriately to any medical conditions they have.

Neglect by others
Neglect is a passive form of abuse in which the perpetrator (someone) is responsible to provide care, for someone, who is unable to care for oneself, but fails to provide adequate care to meet their needs. Neglect may include failing to provide sufficient supervision, nourishment, medical care or other needs

1.2 identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse Signs and symptoms may include:

Physical abuse broken bones, bruises, pressure marks, abrasions, and burns skin infections,

Sexual abuse Bruises around the breasts or genital area, as well as unexplained bleeding around the Genital area and pregnancy

Emotional abuse
The adult is not getting access to medical care or appointments with other agencies. Low self-esteem or lack of confidence and anxiety.
Increased levels of confusion.
Increased urinary or faecal incontinence.
Sleep disturbance.
Uncontrollable crying
The persons feeling / acting as if they are being watched all or some of the time. Decreased ability to communicate.
Language being used that is not usual for the individual.
Deference / submission to the perpetrator.

Financial abuses no money, food, clothes, and large withdrawals of money from account. Bills not getting paid.

Institutional abuse
Treating adults like children.
Arbitrary decision making by staff group, service or organisation. Strict regimented or inflexible routines or schedules for daily activities such as meal times, bed times. Bathing / washing, going to the toilet. Lack of choice or options, such as food or drink, dress, possessions, daily  activities and social activities. Lack of privacy, dignity, choice or respect for people or individuals. Lack of provision for dress, diet or religious observance in accordance with an individual’s belief or cultural background. Withdrawing people from individual community or family contact.

Failure to take necessary medicines,
Leaving a burning stove unattended (may also be mental problems), poor hygiene, confusion, Unexplained weight loss or weight gain, and dehydration.

Bedsores, poor hygiene, unsanitary living conditions, and unattended medical needs. Weight loss,

1.3 describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse

Setting – lack of trained staff, not enough staff, work pressure, stress Individual – dementia, disability, isolation, vulnerability Abuser – ignorance, lack of training, abused person can become the abuser, abuse of power, greed, frustration, stress,

Outcome 2: Know how to respond to suspected or alleged abuse

2.1 explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abused Report to the appropriate person, talk it though with lime manger unless they are the abuser , Record the facts immediately

2.2 explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused Record the facts immediately
Report immediately

2.3 identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved Do not tamper with evidence

Outcome 3: Understand the national and local context of safeguarding and protection from abuse

3.1 identify national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse No secrets (2000) is guidance
Safeguarding adults (2009) framework
Mental health act 1983 (old)

3.2 explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse Police criminal (assault, fraud, theft, domestic violence)

Council, to protect people using their service – make sure they’re safe. Extend help where needed to support those experiencing abuse and neglect in their own homes

Social Workers, To investigate actual or suspected abuse or neglect

CRB/DBS to check an individuals past to see if they have any criminal convictions.

Care provider such as Home Care Agency.
Medical professionals such as GP, A&E staff, nurses, doctors: they can examine, diagnose & treat, they can record: this can include photographic evidence.

Safeguarding Team, within Social Services dept: investigates & ensures safety, work with other agencies such as police. A Safeguarding & Protection Officer would lead the Adult Protection Alert.

3.3 identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse You could look at Baby P and how this is linked to Victoria Climbie, the failings are similar. Could look at something like the Winterbourne view failings

3.4 identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse Books
Nvq person
Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DOL)
Policies and procedures

Outcome 4: Understand ways to reduce the likelihood of abuse

4.1 explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by:
– Working with person-centred values
Follow the individuals care plan
Listen to individuals
Manage risk and enable independence, choice and control

– Encouraging active participation
Support and encourage individuals to communicate with you

– Promoting choice and rights
They would feel in powered
Feeling able to speak out

4.2 explain the importance of an accessible complaint procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse If a complaint procedure is clear and easily accessible abusers would be more likely to be challenged on their behaviour. Knowing this would make them less likely to abuse. It also helps vulnerable individuals to feel more protected and more empowered and therefore less likely to accept abuse

Outcome 5: Know how to recognise and report unsafe practices 5.1 describe unsafe practices that may affect the wellbeing of individuals Staff shortages
Staff are too tired to do their job correctly ·
Staff “cut corners” due to lack of time ·
Agency staff not knowing service users correct needs
Lack of training
Inexperienced staff “acting up” in a senior role
Staff not trained in their role correctly
Lack of correct equipment
No PPEavailable ·
Equipment broken or unavailable
Poor moving and handling procedure.

5.2 explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified Report to appropriate person to hopefully get it sorted.
If not Whistle blowing,

5.3 describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response Report to the next level
Supervisor manager
Social worker
Safe guarding team
Care quality commission

Ref. Wish to thank the Internet site goggle helped a lot.

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