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Pathophysiology in Disaster and Trauma Situations – Solved Essay

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Write a 1500-2000 word APA formatted essay of the following topics:

Differentiate among several types of shock: cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive, distributive, and septic. Explain the pathophysiology of each.

Discuss the risks of morbidity and mortality and the preparation and prevention measures for one type of natural disaster

Explain how to set up for disaster closet in the emergency department. What items should it contain? Who should have access?  Should it be locked?  What type of drills should be conducted?

Elaborate on the pathophysiology of burns. Differentiate between first, second, and third degree burns.  What are the potential complications of each?…

Solution

Pathophysiology in Disaster and Trauma Situations

Introduction

In the contemporary world, disasters can occur at any time in any place.  These lead to a large number of people either becoming ill or getting injured as a result of natural calamities like earthquakes, wildfires, floods, tornadoes and hurricanes or human-made causes like accidents or deliberate action like happens with acts of terror. The losses include but are not limited to the death of loved ones or coworkers, loss of homes, workplaces and possessions while survivors face the prospects of losing the healthy way of life and work amongst other adverse effects. As Salmani et al. (2019) note, all these require actions to restore, promote or maintain the victims’ health. Due to all causes and impacts, different people have different definitions of disaster, but within the context of this paper, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies definition are applied. Here, disaster is used to describe any event whose fatalities exceed ten, affects more than 100 individuals and necessitates an appeal for help by those affected. Notable examples include multiple road accidents, the North Ridge Earthquake, September 11 terrorist attack of the Twin Towers, hurricane Katrina and disease outbreaks like Ebola in 2014 and Covid-19 of 2020. Nevertheless, while each of these occurrences differs widely, they have a common thread in terms of developing psychopathology.

Consequently, this analysis examines the pathophysiology of disaster and trauma situations. To achieve this goal, the paper makes a distinction among types of shock, explores the risks of morbidity and mortality in addition to preparedness and prevention measures of a natural disaster of type. The author then explains the steps involved in setting up a disaster closet in the emergency department before elaborating on the pathophysiology of burns. The pathogenesis and progression of Ebola conclude the paper.

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Different Types of Shocks and Their Pathogenesis

      All types of shocks can result in the same terminal stage of multiorgan failure emanating from the imbalanced supply and demand for oxygen, but this does not negate the fact that each type of shock has different pathogenesis as well as physiology. Due to this, healthcare providers need to be aware of the proper definition and categorization for each type as each calls specific therapeutic measures for vital functions restoration with an emphasis on cardiovascular function consistent to survival (Standl et al., 2018).

      Cardiogenic shock is primarily a disorder of the cardiac function caused by myocardial infarction which creates impairment of the heart leading to lowered fluid in the tissues (Standl et al., 2018). The cardiogenic shock pathophysiology consists of a heart attack whose trigger is heart dysfunctional and ischemia. Second is hypovolemic shock whose defining characteristic is perfusion that is low due to loss of fluid as it flows towards the vital organs. The pathophysiology of hypovolemic shock consists of loss of blood which leads to inadequate perfusion. As Standl et al. (2018) note, dehydration and trauma lead to plasma as well as blood loss that causes blood flow w in the blood vessels like arteries and veins to below. The third is obstructive shock whose cause is the hindrance of the average cardiovascular circuit flow.  Its pathogenesis is marked by constrictive pericarditis and pericardial tamponade that threatens the routine filling of the right ventricle due to decreased pressure within the arteries.

      Fourth is distributive shock whose name aptly describes the cause as changes in the normal distribution of blood pressure as a result of broadened blood vessels. Minasyan (2017) expounds on distributive shock pathophysiology as being the significant low blood flow emanating from the arteries and veins Vaso-dilate overload. As a consequence, there is decreased blood pressure as such one should understand that in distributive shock, the victim experiences hyperdynamic shock because of mixed venous oxygen saturation. The fifth and last of the types of shocks to be discussed in this paper is a septic shock which happens when there is organ injury or damage as a result of pathogenic infection. The infection is bound to cause some abnormalities not just in cellular metabolism but also of the low blood pressure. Its pathophysiology is premised on the fact that clotting of blood and the effect it has on immunity due to the infections which are mostly caused by bacteria.

Morbidity and Mortality Risks

      Earthquakes are natural disasters that are caused by seismic waves as they pass through the rocks of the earth, causing sudden ground shaking.  Compared to other types of natural disasters, it is quite simple to predict the starting and stopping of an earthquake. Asim et al. (2018) aver that unlike previous earthquake predictions models that were simply using a multistep prediction model refines the robustness of the predicting exercise leading to a final version of the prediction model that is quite enhanced. Depending on the magnitude of the earthquake on the Richter scale, severe earthquakes bring down structures where the ground has fallen sometimes burying thousand or even hundreds of thousands alive as was the of the Haitian earthquake. Heart attacks and shocks are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in an earthquake. Others may succumb to the injuries they have suffered.

      Earthquake preparedness entails drills that are practiced in order to ensure that every individual is aware of the response measures to take in the event of an earthquake strike. The people are taught how to recognize safe spots in order to prevent fatalities and also reduce the extent of injuries (Ersoy & Kocak, 2016).  Evacuation plans in plans should also be well thought out in advance.

How to Set Up a Disaster Closet within the Emergency Department

Asish & Suresh (2016), posit that disaster in a hospital setting is declared the moment requirements overwhelm the available resources of the hospital concerned. However, disasters strike without notice, implying that disaster closet is of the essence in every emergency department.  Emergency specialists are the ones tasked with the responsibility of setting up disaster closets that could be effective in the event of emergent to mitigate the effects of the disaster. Conventionally, most healthcare organizations utilize a triage system of emergency categorization.  At the barest minimum, the disaster closet should have packets meant for mass casualty incidents outlining the responsibilities and duties of the triage attendants, nursing supervisor, as well as ambulatory triage nurses, trauma residents and senior emergency residents (Asish & Suresh, 2016).

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      In addition to these, the closet should also vest for various officers in the ED like ED identification officers, ambulance triage officers, among others. The hospital administrator should have the capacity to control access of the disaster closet so that only authorized personnel have access to it. Moreover, the leader should establish stringent clearance measures (Talti et al., 2014). It is imperative that within the healthcare organization drills are regularly conducted so that the staff is always in tip-top condition.

Pathophysiology of Burns

      By definition, burns are described as damage to the epidermal tissue, dermal tissue or deep tissue as a result of contact with either heat, chemical or electrical agents. Kara (2018) observes that the WHO approximates that about 6.6 million patients get thermal burns, of which 3000 000 results in fatalities each year on a global scale. Burn pathophysiology can be categorized broadly as either local or systemic response. When excess heat comes into contact with the skin, it is known to radiate in an outward manner from the point of the first contact to form a local response with three zones.  On the other hand, systemic response results from a massive burn where two significant clinical processes happen.  However, within the scope of this paper, the author only elaborates on the severity local burns hence will expound on first, second and third-degree burns and the potential implications of each. From the outset, the healthcare professional should bear in mind that before making a conclusive determination of the burn severity, it is necessary to wait a day or two to establish the exact severity since the depth of the burn might increase as a result of edema as well as an infection.

      First-degree burns refer to burns that are superficial since only the epidermal skin is affected. Painful erythema and edema are present, but pain relives within 24 hours.  Complications are rare in first degree burns, and they should heal with desquamation seven days late. Topic analgesic creams are effective as symptomatic treatment. Examples of first degree burns are sunburns.  Unlike first degree burns, second-degree burns are more severe with clinical manifestation of blisters. These burns damage the skin dermis but do not obliterate it. The hair roots are not affected by second-degree burns although, in the deep type of second-degree burns which reach the reticular dermis, the skin may not only become pale but is also thickened. The healing of these burns should take anywhere between two weeks and one month without cicatrix. With fluid resuscitation, complications are also minimized. However, a bacterial infection could happen as complications and in extreme cases, lead to skin disfigurement.

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Pathophysiology in Disaster and Trauma Situations
Pathophysiology in Disaster and Trauma Situations

      Third-degree burns are also known as whole skin and include burns on the muscles, tendons as well as bones. The skin surface becomes dry, and erythema is absent. The skin tissues lose its vitality becomes hard and is defined as eschar. After removal of the eschar, deep granulation and healing of the wound with cicatrix are seen. Skin grafting may be a necessary procedure in some of the significant third-degree burns. Serious complications if healthcare is compromised, are bacterial infection and skin disfigurement.

Pathogenesis and Progression of Ebola

      For about half a century now, Ebola viruses and their related filoviruses have been sporadically emerging within the vast equatorial belt of Africa since they were first isolated in 1976.  Depending on the strain of the Ebola virus, the incubation period could last anywhere between two to twenty-one days. Baseler et al. (2017) quip that when one gets Ebola, the patient experiences a host of symptoms that include Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The Ebola virus disease (EVD) infection causes a mild headache which grows in intensity as time passes by. Another clinical presentation of EVD attack has the patient develop serous back pain, nausea, chills and fatigue. Other symptoms may be accompanied by diarrhea, and even painful vomits by the time the infection is the second or third week. In a majority of the cases the patient will cough out vomit with the terminal, and most dangerous of the EVD attack witnessed when the patient starts hemorrhaging from all the body orifices like the mouth, rectum, nose and even the ears or vagina in women. As the hemorrhaging exacerbates the shock of the patient experience beside the severe and acute blood loss, increases the risk of death.

      The safety issues that had to be addressed during the 2014 Ebola outbreak involved securing and using protective gears like gloves, masks and gowns. When one is entering the epidemic zone, sterilization is also a vital component of protective measures since getting into contact with any of the patients fluid without protection means one gets an infection. The surveillance system, which was deemed to be weak combined with poor health infrastructure, was pointed out as the leading contributors to the challenges of containing the Ebola during this outbreak. To prevent further transmission across borders, travelers getting out of West Africa had to be screened at airports.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this analysis has established that disaster, whether natural or human made has direct as well as indirect consequences which not only destructive but also as damaging as they are deadly. As such, there should always be a disaster management team and resources ready to spring into action within a moment’s notice. Due to the unpredictable nature, people should always be prepared and ready to tackle with such eventualities in the unfortunate circumstances when they do occur. All people should strive to lessen the impact of the disaster once it has struck.

References

Asim, K. M., Idris, A., Iqbal, T., & Martinez-Alvarez, F. (2018). Earthquake prediction model using support vector regressor and hybrid neural networks. PloS one13(7).

Asish, K., & Suresh, V. (2016). Setting up and functioning of an Emergency Medicine Department: Lessons learned from a preliminary study. Indian journal of anesthesia60(2), 108.

Baseler, L., Chertow, D. S., Johnson, K. M., Feldmann, H., & Morens, D. M. (2017). The pathogenesis of Ebola virus disease. Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease12, 387-418.

Ersoy, Ş., & Koçak, A. (2016). Disasters and earthquake preparedness of children and schools in Istanbul, Turkey. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk7(4), 1307-1336.

Kara, Y. A. (2018). Burn Etiology and Pathogenesis. Hot Topics in Burn Injuries, 17.

Minasyan, H. (2017). Sepsis and septic shock: Pathogenesis and treatment perspectives. Journal of Critical Care, 40, 229–242.

Nielson, C. B., Duethman, N. C., Howard, J. M., Moncure, M., & Wood, J. G. (2017). Burns: pathophysiology of systemic complications and current management. Journal of Burn Care & Research38(1), e469-e481.

Salmani, I., Seyedin, H., Ardalan, A., & Farajkhoda, T. (2019). Conceptual model of managing health care volunteers in disasters: a mixed-method study. BMC health services research19(1), 241.

Standl, T., Annecke, T., Cascorbi, I., Heller, A. R., Sabashnikov, A., & Teske, W. (2018). The nomenclature, definition and distinction of types of shock. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International115(45), 757.

Talati, S., Bhatia, P., Kumar, A., Gupta, A. K., & Ojha, C. D. (2014). Strategic planning and designing of a hospital disaster manual in tertiary care, teaching, research and referral institute in India. World journal of emergency medicine5(1), 35.

As you continue, thestudycorp.com has the top and most qualified writers to help with any of your assignments. All you need to do is place an order with us. (Pathophysiology in Disaster and Trauma Situations)

Pathophysiology in Disaster and Trauma Situations
Pathophysiology in Disaster and Trauma Situations

QuestionPathophysiology in Disaster and Trauma Situations

Write a 1500-2000 word APA formatted essay of the following topics:

  • Differentiate among several types of shock: cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive, distributive, and septic. Explain the pathophysiology of each.
  • Discuss the risks of morbidity and mortality and the preparation and prevention measures for one type of natural disaster
  • Explain how to set up for disaster closet in the emergency department. What items should it contain? Who should have access?  Should it be locked?  What type of drills should be conducted?
  • Elaborate on the pathophysiology of burns. Differentiate between first, second, and third degree burns.  What are the potential complications of each?
  • Discuss the pathogenesis and progression of ebola. What safety concerns were addressed during the 2014 outbreak?
  • Veneema, T.G. (2013). Disaster nursing and emergency preparedness: For chemical, biological, and radiological terrorism and other hazards. New York, NY: Springer Publishing. ISBN: 978-0-8261-0865-4. (Chapters 12, 14, 17, 24-26)
  • McCance, K. A. & Huether, S.E. (2010).  Pathophysiology:  The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed.).  St. Louis:  Mosby. (Chapter 48)

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