Modern organizations are facing tremendous challenges in the process of staffing as they need to streamline the increased knowledge work, competition of applicants, shortage of labor, workforce diversity (Ployhart, 2006).
Even though there is a large need for effective staffing practices it is seen that staffing research is been neglected or sometimes misunderstood by the organizational decision makers. To solve these issues staffing professionals need to know the challenges to develop their focus on individual level selection and recruitment processes at an organizational level (Ployhart, 2006). Human Resource Planning (HRP) is referred to as the process an organization uses to ensure that it has the right amount and the right people to deliver a particular level of output or service in the future (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, Cardy, 2007).
HRP needs to effectively plan their labor resources so as to make a balance between the labor supply and demand. Here labor supply refers to the availability of workers with necessary skills which an employer wants and labor demand refers to the number of workers and organization needs. So organizations need to effectively plan HR resources so as to bake a balance between the human capital supply and demand. Organizations failing to conduct effective HRP will not be able to meet the future demands for human capital or may leaf to significant financial cost.
Therefore HRP includes major tasks such as effectively planning the recruitment, selection and hiring processes through which organizations will have the manpower with all the necessary skill (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, Cardy, 2007). In the following sections we will discuss how HR staff will meet the challenges of effective staffing. This report will give an overview of the recruitment process, steps, tools and challenges.
Recruitment is considered as a real sales activity as it has become a critical component with in the HR structure.
For any organization it is important to recruit qualified and skilled people and for this organizations must implement and support effective recruitment process. It is very important to know that recruitment process needs to identify both talent available and that the recruited person is right to fit the job in the organization. The most important factors to be considered while recruitment processes in modern organizations are • Use efficient and cost effective in methods and sources •Must be effective to produce suitable persons Must be fair and legally sound and should ensure that decisions (selections) should be made based on the merit. Therefore it is very essential for any organization to effectively plan and implement the recruitment process and also foresee that proper assessment tools and evaluation methods are used during the process (Bratton and Gold, 2007).
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
There are different types of sources for recruitment. Some of the major are listed as following. •Current employees – Organizations can use the current employees as a source of recruiting by informing them about the job openings.
Internal job postings will give the current employees the opportunity to get better and desired jobs. •Referrals from current employees – it is seen that employee referrals are effective recruitment tools as the current employees have good amount of knowledge on what it take sot be successful worker and member of the organization (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, Cardy, 2007). •Former Employees – Some times firm can decide to recruit people who previously worked in the organization. This source is said to be useful as the for management as previous employees have a good amount of knowledge on the organizational culture and values. Formal military – Organizations can also recruit the former soldiers. •Print and radio advertisements – Organizations can use print media such as news papers for regional, national and international searchers or publicize through radio. •Internet advertizing and career sites – Internet and career sites could be used to post the organizations requirement and it could be made available to the job seekers. This source is said to be cheaper and most responsive as there is an access through globally. Employment agencies – Organizations can use external recruitment agencies (contractors) to recruit and screen applicants. •Temporary workers – This source is also more effective as temporary workers provide employers with flexibility to quickly meet the job demands, this source will also reduce the time and cost of hiring. •College recruiting – Organizations can conduct interviews in the college campus which are generally known as campus selections; this will help organizations to find the required candidate which good knowledge and skills for their organization. Customers – This is a new technique where in management uses the customers to recruit the employees, as long term customers have much information on the organization so they could refer a right person to the company.
NON TRADITIONAL RECRUITING
Non traditional recruiting involves recruiting individuals regardless of their current conditions but only look for the long term perspectives of the labor expectations where in the organizations has to meet the labor demand or even sometimes labor surplus. Non traditional labor pools include welfare recipients, senior citizens, prisoners and workers from foreign countries.
This will not only develop opportunities to the needed but also will help in develop confidence in such groups. It has been reported that recruiting candidates through non traditional process reduces stress related issues in the employees and giving opportunity to such candidates develops self confidence in them and therefore this is affected on their job performance (Arif Hassan, 2007). It is very interesting to learn that Greyston Bakery in Yonkers, New York, produces all its products with the help of employees who had been chronically unemployed and is committed to give opportunity to people who are homeless or drug addicts.
Currently there are 55 employees in this company and it makes an annual turnover of 3. 5 million Dollars in revenue. This example gives a positive insight to develop people and also company mutually encouraging each other.
EXTERNAL VERSUS INTERNAL CANDIDATES
Hiring externally gives a firm with more perspectives and advantage to reach people using different approaches. Some organizations think that hiring externally is more cost effective than giving training to current employees for using a new technology or process (Arif Hassan, 2007).
There is a disadvantage in this process as some times current employees do not consider the ideas and perspectives and limit their impact. Apart from this a newly hired person will need more time to learn about the job and the organization. This may some times lead the management to think of the external recruitment and feel that they would have trained the internal employees or used them for the new jobs (Bratton and Gold, 2007). On the other hand internal recruitment includes promoting and transfers of the current employees. This process is also said to have advantages and disadvantages.
On the advantage side it is cost effective and it encourages the employees to know that they are been considered and are given preference and as these employees are already familiar with the organization they can perform their job responsibilities with more ease (Bratton and Gold, 2007). On the disadvantage side introduction of new talents and technology will be reduced which may some times affect the organizational performance. Some times promoted workers may take the advantage of their position and may expect a special treatment as that of a supervisor or manager.
RECRUITING PROTECTED CLASSES
Internally many organizations look for alternative individuals for recruiting. This process includes internal and external recruitment of individuals such as women, minorities, disabled people and employees in the protected classes. Even though the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guidelines specify that public sector employers and contractors should have written affirmative action policies. It has been seen that many private sector organizations these policies help them to make good business.
PLANING THE RECRUITMENT EFFORT
Relating HRP and recruitment will give effective results in the process of recruitment as HRP compares the current workforce with the future demands (Kathy, Kerfoot). For example a company needs 10 additional staff with regards to the plan of expansion and the expected market conditions. So this information could be used to determine the level of recruitment efforts. Therefore HRP when tied with recruitment helps the organization to know how many candidates should the recruitment effort attempt so as to attract for each job opining which is known and yield ratios that is related to recruitment input and output.
Recruitment process is one of the crucial processes in the modern organizations. Hiring a right candidate, with right skills as needed for the job opining is a crucial task for HR managers. HR professionals can effectively plan the recruiting process through effective HRP’s and the available recruitment tools. In the modern organizations most firms are looking for the cost effective process for recruiting and one of the most used sources is the internet and recruiting consultants.
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