In the Gagne, Briggs, & Wager reading, there is an assumption that designed instruction must be based on the knowledge of how human beings learn.
In considering how an individual’s abilities are to be developed, it is not enough to state what they should be; one must examine closely the question of how they can be acquired. In part, this concerns the attitude with which the learner approaches the class material. The selection of strategies a teacher chooses for instruction needs to reflect not simply what the teacher wants, but also how the student is intended to learn such knowledge. Therefore, instructional design must take into account the learning conditions that need to be established in order for the desired effects to occur.
In your post, think about the ways student attitudes can be considered when designing learning outcomes. Revisit the list of 11 guidelines which appear on pp 91-92 in the Gagne, Briggs, & Wager reading. Select one of the guidelines and comment on how the suggestion might be used in a classroom setting (for any content area). Be sure to explicitly situate the guideline into a classroom-based scenario. You might consider how external conditions influence the successful implementation of the guideline you selected. be sure to include practical examples.
1. Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design. Harcourt Brace College Publishers. https://www.hcs64.com/files/Principles%20of%20instructional%20design.pdf
- Read pp 37-119. Part Two: Basic processes in learning and instruction, Chapters 3-6
- Chapter 3: One source of complexity in defining educational goals arises from the need to translate goals from the very general to the increasingly specific. Many layers of such goals would be needed to be sure that each topic in the curriculum actually moves the learner a step closer to the distant goal. Despite the involved nature of this problem, means are available for classifying course objectives into categories that then make it possible to examine the scope of types of human capabilities the course is intended to develop. This chapter groups objectives into five categories of capabilities which are described in a classroom setting.
- Chapter 4: This chapter examines the nature of the performance capabilities implied by each of the five categories of learned capabilities. Beginning with intellectual skills and cognitive strategies, the authors’ outline (1) examples of learned performances in terms of different school subjects, (2) the kinds of internal conditions of learning needed to reach the new capability, and (3) the external conditions affecting its learning.
- Chapter 5: Chapter 5 provides a description of three different kinds of learning: verbal information, attitudes, and motor skills. Although they have some features in common, their most notable characteristic is that they are in fact different in the kinds of outcome performances which are possible: (1) Verbal information: Verbally stating facts, generalizations, organized knowledge. (2) Attitude: Choosing a course of personal action. (3) Motor skill: Executing a performance of bodily movement.
- Chapter 6: Learner characteristics that affect the learning of new instructional material assumes several kinds of organization in human memory. The learned capabilities of intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, verbal information, attitudes, and motor skills have direct effects on the learning of new instances of these same kinds of capabilities. Chapter 6 examines outlines learner abilities, skills, and schemas.