history of taliban in the end of xxth century

Afghanistan followed the same fate as dozens of formerly Soviet-occupied countries

after the collapse of Moscow’s Marxist government in 1991. Islamic factions, which had united to

expel the Russian occupiers in 1992, began to fight among themselves when it became apparent

that post-communist coalition governments could not overcome the deep-rooted ethnic and

religious differences of the members. It was in this atmosphere of economic strife and civil war

that a fundamentalist band of religious students emerged victorious. By 1996, this group, the

Taliban, ruled 90% of the country with a controversial holy iron hand.

The other 10% of the country is tenaciously held by minority opposition groups led by

president Rabbani and military commander Ahmed Shah Massoud and aided by foreign Taliban

adversaries. This Northern Alliance shares critics’ objections to the Taliban’s extreme

fundamentalist methods and especially scorns Pashtun ethnic chauvinism.

Today only Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia recognize the Taliban

as Afghanistan’s legitimate ruling party. The United Nations still considers Massoud head of

State, the US advocates a broad based government and others favor Rabbani, Zahir Shah,

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar or other opponents as rulers of Afghanistan.

The Taliban claim to follow a pure, fundamentalist Islamic ideology, yet the oppression

they perpetrate against women has no basis in Islam. Within Islam, women are allowed to earn

and control their own money, and to participate in public life. The 55-member Organization of

Islamic Conference has refused to recognize the Taliban as Afghanistan’s official government.

The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, regarded by many as an ultraconservative, fundamentalist

organization, has denounced the Taliban’s decrees.

Female employment and education is restricted or banned. Women must stay at home.

If necessary, women who do leave the house must be accompanied by a male relative and cover

themselves with a burqa (an ankle-length veil with a mesh-like opening in front of the eyes).

Non-religious music, cassette tapes, TV and movies are all banned. Multi-colored signs are

prohibited. White socks are forbidden (either because they are considered a sexual lure or

because they resemble Afghanistan’s flag). Children cannot fly kites, play chess or play with the

pigeons since it distracts them from their religious studies. Men must wear beards or face prison

until their shaven whiskers grow back. Paper bags are banned since the paper might have been

recycled from old Korans and lower level windows must be blackened to prevent males from

inadvertently catching women in compromising states. In order to guarantee that men and

women observe the new rules, the Taliban have employed a moral police force (Agents for the

Preservation of Virtue and Elimination of Vice) to search for violators. The purported brutal

treatment of offenders by the moral police has led Amnesty International to classify the conduct

Prior to the Civil War and Taliban control, especially in Kabul, the capital, women in

Afghanistan were educated and employed: 50% of the students and 60% of the teachers at

Kabul University were women, and 70% of school teachers, 50% of civilian government workers,

and 40% of doctors in Kabul were women.

Some examples of gender apartheid follow:

A woman who dared to defy Taliban orders by running a home school for girls was

shot and killed in front of her husband, daughter, and students.

A woman caught trying to flee Afghanistan with a man not related to her was stoned to

An elderly woman was brutally beaten with a metal cable until her leg was broken

because her ankle was accidentally showing from underneath her burqa.

Women have died of treatable ailments because male doctors were not allowed to

Many women, now forcibly housebound, have attempted suicide by swallowing

household cleaner, rather than continuing to live under these conditions.

97% of Afghan women surveyed by Physicians for Human Rights exhibit signs of

The Taliban creates fallacies t maintain control. The following is an excerpt from ____

newspaper in 199_. The Taliban emerged in early 1994 from the Sunni religious schools

(called madrassat) near Quetta, Pakistan, at a time when factional fighting and resulting

lawlessness were at their height. Originally a small band of warriors from the majority

Pashtoon tribe, their numbers swelled as they met with increasing success. Their take-over

of the southern Afghan city of Kandahar, in April 1994, was welcomed by its citizens, who

had long suffered under corrupt and brutal mujehadeen commanders. The Taliban (the

name derives from the Arabic word for student) quickly established order in Kandahar,

disarming all factions and the general population. The Taliban leader of the faithful, amir

ul-momineen, Mohammed Omar, is a former mujahedin and is a mullah from Kandahar. A

Pashtoon city, Kandahar has accepted the Taliban’s version of sharia (Islamic law), which is

more or less consistent with local traditions. Today it is peaceful. The Taliban subsequently

swept through south-western Afghanistan, and arrived in Herat, close to the Iranian border,

in September 1995. On 27 September 1996 the Taliban took control of Kabul. Little

resistance was offered by retreating government forces. The Taliban version of Islam is an

interpretation of the Koran(i-sharif) and derived from Pashtunwali, the Pashtun tribal code.

Initially welcomed Taliban has stopped the abuse of power, increasing dogmatism and

‘gender apartheid’ , which was unchecked by the former so khown ‘Mujahid

Warriors’.Taliban-controlled areas appear to be relatively calm. Most Afghans give high

marks to the Taliban for their ability to bring security to the sizeable territory under their

control. Checkpoints in Kabul, Logar, and Paktia Provinces are lightly manned and

non-threatening; guns are not in evidence among the general populace in cities and

International oil interests are in fierce competition to build pipelines through Afghanistan

to link Caspian Sea oil and gas reserves to Central and South Asia. California-based UNOCAL, a

U.S. energy company, led the CentGas consortium that planned to build an oil and gas pipeline

through Afghanistan. The Taliban stood to gain $100 million a year from this pipeline. UNOCAL

announced it was suspending the project at the end of 1998, citing in part, pressure from feminist

organizations protesting the company’s involvement with the Taliban. Other U.S. and

international corporate interests are vying for business in the country. Recently, Telephone

Systems International (TSI), a New Jersey-based telecommunications firm, reached an

agreement with the Taliban to install a satellite-based system throughout Afghanistan. Corporate

investment under current conditions could mean billions of dollars to shore up the Taliban regime

I have compiled a few things individuals can do to help this situation.

introduce RAWA and RAWA activities to individuals, groups, schools, organisations,

and other congregations in your community

stage protests, marches, demonstrations in support of RAWA and in solidarity with

organise gatherings, meetings, seminars, etc. to highlight the situation of Afghan

write to Pakistan authorities voicing your protest and support for RAWA in events of

government or non-government violence against our organisation (assassination of our

founding leader in Pakistan; and maltreatment of RAWA collaborator by Pakistani

government secret service agents in Islamabad, April 28, 1997; by Taliban hooligans on

RAWA demonstration, April 28, 1998; of RAWA and its etc.)

invite RAWA members to speak on its activities, situation of Afghan women, etc.

give coverage to reports on Afghanistan and Jihadi and Taliban crimes in your

publications, or somehow make people in your community aware of them

(for those who know Persian, Pashtu or Urdu:) translate RAWA writings and articles for

us into major languages, particularly English

sell our , (in Farsi, Pushto, Urdu and English) and audio of patriotic and revolutionary

songs in your community against advance payment of price and postage costs to us

help our with funds, any and all school supplies, etc.

help our hospitals with funds, medicines and medical supplies

donate computers and copiers for our publications and our training courses for refugee

donate films with revolutionary and anti-fundamentalist themes (preferably with

sub-titles in Persian or, if not available, in English) and also books, reference books,

encyclopaedias, dictionaries, periodicals, etc. for our resource centre for

donate funds to cover postage/freight costs of medicines, books and school supplies

which friends in Europe and America have collected and donated to us but which we

unfortunately cannot receive because postage/freight charges are not included

donate camcorders, cassette duplicators, sound mixing equipment, CD recorders,

special equipment for RAWA’s documentation centre of Jihadi and Taliban crimes

make other donors aware of the womens’ needs

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