What is the most efficient study to test whether the drug reduces diastolic blood pressure? Justify your answer.

What is the most efficient study to test whether the drug reduces diastolic blood pressure? Justify your answer.
Biostatistics Team Project 1 ‒ Questions

A study is conducted to test a new drug claimed to reduce diastolic blood pressure in adults with a history of coronary heart disease. What is the most efficient study to test whether the drug reduces diastolic blood pressure? Justify your answer.

An investigator wants to test whether exposure to secondhand smoke before 1 year of life is associated with development of childhood asthma (defined as asthma diagnosed before 5 years of age). Give two possible study designs and indicate the pros and cons of each. Then, provide your recommendation for the most efficient design.

True or False? The following are all examples of observational study designs:
Case-control study.
Prospective cohort study.
Cross-over trial.
Retrospective cohort study.

A study is run to estimate the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in men and women over the age of 60. Development of atrial fibrillation was monitored over a 10-year follow-up period. The data are summarized below:

Developed AF Did not Develop AF
Men 120 6453
Women 86 7074

Compute the cumulative incidence of AF in men and in women.
Compute the relative risk of AF incidence comparing men to women.
Compute the odds ratio of AF incidence comparing men and women.

A clinical trial designed to show the efficacy of a new drug in reducing progression to hypertension reports the following:

New Drug Placebo
Sample size 200 200
Progression to hypertension 14% 19%

Compute the relative risk of progression to hypertension among patients receiving the new drug as compared to the placebo.
Compute the difference in proportions of patients progressing to hypertension between the two groups.
Compute the odds ratio of progression to hypertension among patients receiving the new drug as compared to the placebo.

The following are grade point averages measured in a sample of 8 undergraduate students who are applying to graduate schools in public health.
3.28 2.97 3.05 3.61 3.39 2.95 3.00 3.10

Compute the sample mean.
Compute the sample standard deviation.
Compute the sample median.

The following are body mass index (BMI) scores measured in 12 patients who are free of diabetes and participating in a study of risk factors for obesity. Body mass index is measured as the ratio of weight in kilograms to height in meters squared.
25 27 31 33 26 28 38 41 24 32 35 40

Compute the mean BMI.
Compute the standard deviation of BMI.
Compute the median BMI.
Compute Q1 and Q3.
Are there outliers in the distribution of BMI? Justify your answer.

A pilot study is run to investigate the effect of a lifestyle intervention designed to increase medication adherence in patients with HIV. Medication adherence is measured as the percentage of prescribed pills that are taken over a one week observation period. Ten patients with HIV agree to participate and their medication adherence before and after the intervention are shown below.


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