Introduction to Curriculum Development in Nursing Education – Solved Essay

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With the exception of a few years in the early 1990s, the shortage of nurses to provide care in hospitals has been a chronic problem with intermittent acute exacerbations since the 1930s. What effects at both macro level (e.g. public opinion, social policy) and micro level (e.g. individual schools, courses) has this had on nursing education? Has the net balance of positive and negative effects been beneficial for nursing education? Why?
Debate the wisdom and feasibility of setting the master\’s degree as the minimum marker for the professional segment of the nursing continuum. Given the 20/20 hindsight gained from the debacle of the 1965 Position Paper, how would you …

Solution

Introduction to Curriculum Development in Nursing Education

Introduction

Curriculum development within the context of nursing education happens to be a creative and scholarly activity meant to create evidence–guided, content-specific and integrated curriculum. Curriculum development is a continuous process in nursing education across all schools, teaching established curricula. The term school embraces all learning institutions ranging from nursing colleges to faculties and schools. Likewise, curriculum development describes the totality of all planned experiences that students learn within an institution (Ramasubbramaniam & Grace, 2015). Suffice it to say that curriculum development in nursing education encounters several challenges since the nursing profession must remain updated and responsive to the changes taking place across the whole spectrum of the health care sector. Only by keeping abreast of the changes would continuous delivery of patient-centered that is not only safe but also of high quality and effective. Some of the challenges nursing practice encounters in the 21st-century increase the number of elderly patients, the costs of healthcare, and nursing shortages. It is integral to examine the impact of the nursing shortage on nursing education at the macro-level (social policy and public opinion) and micro-level (like specific courses and individual schools. Secondly, an analysis of the feasibility and rationale of setting a master’s degree as the minimum indicator for the trained professionals in the nursing continuum is conducted to provide hindsight on its applicability. Furthermore, the article offers an analysis of how the subject, setting, and student characteristics triangulation to help to frame both curriculum planning and development.

Effects of Nursing Shortage of Nursing Education

The current shortage of nurses only expounds on the 21st-century nursing challenges worsened by an aging workforce. Insufficient members of the faculty with projections indicate that the nursing shortage will continue to increase. According to Drennan & Rose (2019), nursing educator shortages arise from low salaries for faculty members compared to clinicians, late point in career development for those who choose educator roles, and age delayed nursing trajectory of nurses acquiring high levels of education. The resulting nursing shortage impacts public policy as the concerned governments enact legislation that will reverse the increasing nursing shortage. Marc et al. (2019) posit that with the US anticipating a nurse shortage of over 800 000 nurses by 2020, the Federal government should consider setting attractive salary ranges for the advanced trained nurses and the most experienced ones. Improvement of the nursing image should also ensue so that public opinion is positive. At the social level, more minorities should also enter the nursing working force. At the micro-level, the nursing shortage affects individual healthcare organizations through low staffing ratios, which lead to nurse burnout. At the same time, a specific course, especially those concerned with the implementation of new technology lag behind since nurses with those competencies are inadequate.

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An immediate effect of the nursing shortage on nursing education is the shortage of nursing instructors. According to Registered Nursing (2020), more than 64 000 applicants to nursing schools were turned away due to a lack of nursing instructors. Even as more nurses want to enroll in masters courses and doctorate programs, many are not registered since nursing professors are not adequate. Yet, they are ones qualified to educate future nursing instructors. A gain for the existing nursing shortage is the presence of more job vacancies for trained nurses despite their being the leading working in the US healthcare professionals at more than four million (Bouchaud, Brwon & Swan, 2017). The shortage of nursing instructions has also led to increased online advanced nursing courses. After considering the overall positive and negative impacts of the nursing shortage, this essay argues that benefits are more than the adverse effects. The deficit can lead to compromised healthcare.

Conversely, though, the resulting gains include intensive use of emerging technology, so telenursing is common in the 2020s and beyond. The shortage has also encouraged interprofessional collaboration across multiple healthcare-related disciplines. The highlighted benefits, amongst others, demonstrate that the current nursing shortage has more positive impacts on nursing education than drawbacks.

Wisdom and Feasibility of Setting the Master’s Degree as the Nursing Continuum Minimum Professional Segment Indicator

Fifty-five years have passed since the American Journal of Nursing published its 1965 Position Paper on Nursing Education. The Position Paper’s authors failed to address the 1965 Medicare and Medicaid legislation, the paper’s effect on future nursing demands, and the workforce’s needs. The document envisioned a systematic transition from the hospital- oriented nursing education diploma programs with two levels in instructions of higher learning. These were Associate degree (AD), technical nurses. The next level was Baccalaureate (BSN), professional nurses. Hospital affiliated schools produced a steady source of new graduates who transited from senior students to fresh graduates who met the needs of patients since this curriculum concentrated on illness. Be that as it may, the setting of a Master’s degree as the minimum qualification has been beneficial. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) and the American Nursing Association (ANA) have sensed the transition to the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) and the conventional Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing. The current essay acknowledges the fact that there is no need to scrap or phase out the Master’s level program as many advanced degree nurses are prepared at the master’ s(Winstanley, 2017). If I were to advise national nursing organizations, I would root for retaining the current definition since career advancement and autonomy at the professional and financial level are directly connected to higher education. My stand essentially means that nursing education institutions that are phasing out the masters level nursing programs and replacing with doctorate ones would have to revert to the MSN and DNP or Ph.D. programs as separate programs.

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Analysis of Triangulation of Subject, Setting, and Student Characteristics

Curriculum planning and development good practices demonstrate that having a subject, setting, and student characteristics triangulation assists in data collection and evidence retrieval, all of which play a vital role in the assessment of a learner’s learning and progress. Triangulating these three components offers a way that is not only accurate but also effective as then the instructor determines the student’s progress. The triangulation process entails having conversations, making observations, and products. The instructor can then establish the capabilities and development of their students. Similarly, the instructor can create improvements, abilities, and the need for change so that their incorporation becomes paramount in the process of developing and framing the nursing education curriculum. Triangulation is bound to improve nursing student’s performance as well as their learning skills. The advanced curriculum at the primary level comprises of the program components, the implementation components, and the measure of nurse student outcomes. The effectiveness of the developed curriculum in future factors in unanticipated influences may significantly impact the curriculum’s implementation. The theory of action informing the enactment of curricular innovation presents as invention strategies and, together with systemic factors, makes up the three secondary factors that can determine the successful implementation of any curriculum developed.

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Introduction to curriculum development in nursing education
Introduction to curriculum development in nursing education

Summary of Scholarly Article on the History and Evolution of Nursing Curricula

Harker (2017) examines Mildred Montag, a nursing authority with a PhD whose evolutionary measures to resolve a nurse shortage led nursing students out of hospital-based programs and into a decisive nursing curriculum model. Montag’s proposed a 2-year plan for preparing technical nurses to plug the hole in the healthcare workforce triggered nursing shortage. The overarching goal was to avail of a trained nursing workforce to assist the baccalaureate-prepared professional nurse. Dr. Montag’s work, Harker notes, is still relevant to contemporary nursing. It is still grappling with the question raised in which nurses and healthcare organizations will provide high-quality care and offer modern patients direct care. The article explores Montag’s 2-year program and delves into how her ideas and actions are applicable in contemporary healthcare. Harker (2017) concludes with an acknowledgment that for America to transform the healthcare system, there is needed to change the way nurses get their education. .The future of nursing education will underscore Florence Nightgale’s sentiments. For nurses, nursing is an entity that, unless one makes progress on a daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly basis, avoids going back. Nursing of the past and the requirement to move forward are the two synergistic drivers that equip nurses to explore the opportunities that abound in the nursing profession today and in the future.

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Conclusion

In conclusion, nursing curriculum is the backbone of all nursing education programs ranging from technical to professional and graduate level of nursing institutions of higher learning. Once developed, it is essential to state that curriculum revision is a continuous process that that be detached from curriculum planning as nurse educators and the institutions they work for have to embrace the dynamic changes that occur in the world of science and education.

References

Bouchaud, M., Brown, D., & Swan, B. A. (2017). Creating a new education paradigm to prepare nurses for the 21st century.

Drennan, V. M., & Ross, F. (2019). Global nurse shortages—the facts, the impact, and action for change. British medical bulletin130(1), 25-37.

Hao, J., & Gao, B. (2017). Advantages and disadvantages for nurses using social media. Of3, 2.

Harker, M. (2017). History of nursing education evolution Mildred Montag. Teaching and Learning in Nursing12(4), 295-297.

Marć, M., Bartosiewicz, A., BurzyĹ„ska, J., Chmiel, Z., & Januszewicz, P. (2019). A nursing shortage–a prospect of global and local policies. International nursing review66(1), 9-16.

Ramasubramaniam, S., & Grace, A. J. P., (2015). Curriculum development in nursing education: Where is the pathway?. Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS)4(5), 76-81.

Registered Nursing (2020) Is Nursing Education Contributing to the Nursing Shortage? URL; https://www.registerednursing.org/nurse-education-contributing-nursing-shortage/ Retrieved on June 1st, 2020.

Winstanley, H. D. (2017). A Qualitative Descriptive Study Exploring Associate Degree Nursing Faculty’s Experiences Teaching Electronic Health Record Systems Use (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas).

Question – Introduction to Curriculum Development in Nursing Education

  • With the exception of a few years in the early 1990s, the shortage of nurses to provide care in hospitals has been a chronic problem with intermittent acute exacerbations since the 1930s. What effects at both macro level (e.g. public opinion, social policy) and micro level (e.g. individual schools, courses) has this had on nursing education? Has the net balance of positive and negative effects been beneficial for nursing education? Why?
  • Debate the wisdom and feasibility of setting the master\’s degree as the minimum marker for the professional segment of the nursing continuum. Given the 20/20 hindsight gained from the debacle of the 1965 Position Paper, how would you advise national nursing organizations to go about changing this definition, if it were to be changed?
  • Analyze how the triangulation of subject, setting, and student characteristics serve to frame curriculum planning and development.
  • Conduct a literature search on the history and evolution of nursing curricula. Summarize the key aspects of the scholarly article, and speculate on how past and present events will frame the future.

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Billings, D. M. & J. A. Halstead. (2012). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (4th ed.). St. Louis: Saunders. (Chapter 5)

Iwasiw, C., Goldenberg, D., & Andrusyszyn, M. (2009). Curriculum development in nursing education (2nd ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett.(Chapter 1)

Keating, S. B. (2011). Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. (Chapter 1)

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