Data sources


For incidence cases and rates worldwide


For  Demographic economic data & development data

Gross National Income (GNI) GNI World Bank (WB) Atlas method “GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States”.

Four group of Countries according to GNI per capita in current US$:

Low income: GNI per capita ≤$1,035;

Lower middle income: $1,035 ‹ GNI per capita ≤ $4,085;

Upper middle income $4,085 ‹ GNI per capita ≤ $12,615;

High income: GNI per capita >$12,615

(World Bank,2013)


‘women in development’ indicators

20 to 24 year women who were first married by age 18,

Percentage of women employed and

Women in parliaments, as a percentage of total seats


Environmental exposure:

Ambient air pollution PM2.5 air pollution: mean annual exposure micrograms per cubic meter, in 2013

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (metric tons), in 2011


For cancer primary, secondary and tertiary policies and interventions




Present  the breakdown of total breast cancer cases for females below 50 and above fifty for the four income country group levels (see cases Excel sheet) (see during class)



1. Descriptive statistics for the main variables of interest for the all age ranges and per income level for

– Incidence per age ranges and income country levels (mean, Standard D. Min and Max)

– Life expectancy

– Other main variables you want to describe


2. Generate two age groups : 15 to 49 (or below 50) and from 50 and +

3. Present  the breakdown of incidence rates
Present the statistics for the incidence rates for these two groups

4. Draw the boxplots for each of these two groups  according to the income country level group

5. Test the statistical significance of the differences between two groups

6. Analysis the main factors that may influence incidences rates by performing some multivariate regressions (examine if some interaction between variables have to be taken into account)




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