I’m trying to study for my Psychology course and I need some help to understand this question.

Your paper should be double-spaced, written in 12-pont Times New Roman font, and have 1-inch margins.

  1. You should NOT include a reference section, nor any in-text citations.
  2. You should NOT include any quotes from any sources. The entire paper must be written exclusively in your own words. This means you need to be extremely careful to avoid plagiarism (including but not limited to self-plagiarism). Before you begin writing, make sure you have a firm grasp of all content covered in the Plagiarism Module.
  3. SCORING CATEGORY #1: WORD COUNT
  4. The word count for the paper must fall between 750-900 words. Point deductions will occur if your paper’s word count falls outside of that range (i.e., if it is longer or shorter). The word count includes every word in the document submitted.SCORING CATEGORY #2: CONTENT OF YOUR FOUR-PARAGRAPH ESSAYThe main text of your paper is a four-paragraph essay. This essay should be written as a response to one of the prompt articles (you can access the prompt articles in the “Prompts” section of the WRC Canvas site). After you have selected the one prompt article you will use for this assignment, you should read it very carefully. Then, you can begin composing your essay. Your essay should be written in four paragraphs. Each paragraph will be graded for its clarity, appropriateness, and thoroughness, defined as follows:

    Each paragraph has distinct writing instructions associated with it, detailed here:

    1. Paragraph #1 instructions: Briefly summarize the primary thesis of the prompt article (be sure to use your own words and avoid plagiarism). What was the author’s main point?
    2. Paragraph #2 instructions: Summarize the arguments/information presented by the prompt article’s authors in their efforts to support their thesis (again: be sure to use your own words and avoid plagiarism). You do not need to give accounts of every argument the authors made; instead, summarize only the most important or compelling theory and evidence the authors used to support their main point.
    3. Paragraph #3 instructions: Describe an example (from your own life or the life of someone you know) of a specific instance that either supports or does not support the thesis of the prompt article.
    4. Paragraph #4 instructions: Finally, describe whether or not the prompt article changed your thoughts about the topic. Be specific: be sure to describe what particular ways your thoughts have (or have not) been changed by the prompt article, and be sure to explain why the prompt article was (or was not) successful in changing your personal views.

    SCORING CATEGORY #3: MECHANICSThe term “mechanics” refers to functional elements of writing. You will receive feedback on mechanical shortcomings of your writing, and it is expected that your will work to correct these shortcomings from draft to draft. Point deductions will correspond to the amount and severity of mechanical errors observed. Here is a list of the mechanics that will be most heavily stressed in the grading of this assignment, along with links to tips for avoiding them:

    • CONTRACTIONS: Do not use contractions at any point in your paper.
    • QUESTIONS: Do not ask questions at any point in your paper.
    • QUOTATIONS: Do not use quotations at any point in your paper.
    • FORMATTING: Ensure proper indentation and/or spacing between words, paragraphs, etc.
    • SPELLING: Ensure proper spelling throughout your paper.
    • INCORRECT WORD CHOICE: When choosing words, be sure to do the following.
      • Ensure proper meaning: Words should be used in manners that correspond to their dictionary definitions.
      • Avoid clichés: Avoid words or phrases that are overused or lack originality.
      • Ensure formality: Avoid slang, jargon, or other casual language. (You are writing a paper for a college class, not a text message to a friend.)
      • Avoid wordiness: Avoid using many words where a few will yield greater clarity.
    • INCORRECT OR MISSING COMMA: Abide by the following rules of comma usage.
      • Use a comma between items in a series.
        • Example: She loves strawberries, grapes, and oranges.
      • Use commas between two or more adjectives when they are used to describe a noun.
        • Example: He is a smart, handsome man.
      • Use a comma when an -ly adjective is used with other adjectives. To check whether an -ly word is an adjective, test to see if it can be used alone with the noun; if it can, use the comma.
        • Example: Sarah is a lovely, young girl.
        • Example: People stared at her oddly matched outfit.
        • Oddly is not an adjective because it cannot be used alone with out outfit; therefore, no comma is used between oddly and matched.
      • Use a comma to separate an introductory word or phrase from the rest of the sentence.
        • Example: At eight o’clock in the evening, the fireworks began.
      • Use commas to set off one or more words that interrupt or elaborate a train of thought in a sentence.
        • Example: That pizza, in my opinion, is the best in town.
        • Example: Max, my brother, will be joining us for dinner tonight.
    • INCORRECT OR MISSING APOSTROPHE: Abide by the following rules of apostrophe usage.
      • For singular ownership, the apostrophe goes before the s.
        • Example: The teacher’s classroom will be inspected for safety.
        • Here, there is only one teacher referred to.
      • For plural ownership, the apostrophe goes after the s.
        • Example: The teachers’ classrooms will be inspected for safety.
        • Here, the sentence refers to all of the teachers in the school.
      • Apostrophes are not needed with possessive pronouns (e.g., his, hers, theirs, ours).
    • SENTENCE FRAGMENT: A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence; it does not express a complete thought. In a fragment, the subject or predicate (or both) will be missing. A fragment leaves the reader wondering, “who,” “what,” “what happened,” or “what about it.”
      • Example:
        • Fragment: Broke the expensive crystal glass.
          • Subject: Who broke the glass? The subject is missing.
          • Predicate: broke
        • Complete sentence: The child broke the expensive crystal glass.
          • Subject: child
          • Predicate: broke
        • Example:
          • Fragment: Without hesitation, Mr. and Mrs. Smith.
            • Subject: Mr. and Mrs. Smith
            • Predicate: What about them? The predicate is missing.
          • Complete sentence: Without hesitation, Mr. and Mrs. Smith cheered with delight when their daughter announced her engagement.
            • Subject: Mr. and Mrs. Smith
            • Predicate: cheered
        • In some cases, fragments possess both a subject and a predicate, but do not express a complete thought. This occurs when the sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction: a connecting word the creates a relationship between clauses (e.g., unless, after, whether, since, because). The resulting fragment is called a subordinate clause.
          • Subordinate clause: After we went shopping.
            • Complete sentence: After we went shopping, we had dinner at Chili’s.
          • Subordinate clause: Because it rained.
            • Complete sentence: The picnic was cancelled because it rained.
    • RUN-ON SENTENCE: A run-on sentence is two or more sentences written as one. Use one of the following three methods to fix a run-on sentence.
      • Create two separate sentences.
        • Run-on: They are perfect for each other they spend every waking moment together.
        • Correct: They are perfect for each other. They spend every waking moment together.
      • Use a semicolon to divide the thoughts.
        • Run-on: It is such a beautiful day I’d love to have a picnic outside.
        • Correct: It is such a beautiful day; I’d love to have a picnic outside.
      • Separate the thoughts with both a comma and a coordinating conjunction. (The seven coordinating conjunctions are: and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet.)
        • Run-on: She loves visiting new places her fear of flying keeps her from travelling too far.
        • Correct: She loves visiting new places, but her fear of flying keeps her from travelling too far.
    • COMMA SPLICES: Sometimes run-on sentences occur because of incorrect punctuation, known as a comma splice. A comma splice occurs when independent clauses are joined with a comma only; the coordinating conjunction is missing. (The seven coordinating conjunctions are: and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet.)
      • To fix this, simply add the correct coordinating conjunction.
        • Comma splice: Tomorrow is a busy day, I better get to bed early tonight.
        • Correct: Tomorrow is a busy day, so I better get to bed early tonight.
    • SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: Basic sentence structure depends on subject-verb agreement. The correct verb form to use is based on number, person, and tense.
      • Number: The verb of the sentence must match the subject in number, meaning that both must either be singular or plural.
        • With a singular subject, use a singular verb.
          • Incorrect: My mother plan a birthday party for me every year.
          • Correct: My mother plans a birthday party for me every year.
          • The singular subject, my mother, needs a singular verb, plans.
        • With a plural subject, use a plural verb.
          • Incorrect: The teachers helps with the fundraiser.
          • Correct: The teachers help with the fundraiser.
          • The plural subject, teachers, needs a plural verb, help.
      • Person: The verb of the sentence must match the subject in person, meaning that both must either be first-person, second-person, or third-person.
        • Example in first-person:
          • Incorrect: I is hoping for rain.
          • Correct: I am hoping for rain.
          • The first-person subject, I, needs a first-person verb, am.
        • Example in second-person:
          • Incorrect: You is hoping for rain.
          • Correct: You are hoping for rain.
          • The second-person subject, you, needs a second-person verb, are.
        • Example in third-person:
          • Incorrect: He are hoping for rain.
          • Correct: He is hoping for rain.
          • The third-person subject, he, needs a third-person verb, is.
      • Tense: A consistent verb tense must be used when writing.
        • Incorrect: I rode my bike before I go to the store.
        • Correct: I rode my bike before I went to the store.
        • In the correct version, the subject consistently agrees with the verb tense (past).
    • MISPLACED OR DANGLING MODIFIER: A modifier is any word (or group of words) used to describe another part of a sentence. Modifiers include adjectives, adverbs, and phrases that are used like adjectives or adverbs. Problems occur when modifiers are put in the wrong part of the sentence. Doing so can change the meaning of the sentence, or even make it illogical.
      • Example of a “misplaced modifier”:
        • Incorrect: Chasing a squirrel up a tree, my grandmother saw her cat, Fluffy.
          • Notice that the modifying phrase (chasing a squirrel up a tree) seems to refer to grandmother, which is not the intended meaning.
        • Correct: My grandmother saw her cat, Fluffy, chasing a squirrel up a tree.
          • Notice that correcting the error required moving the modifier closer to the word/phrase it was intended to modify (her cat, Fluffy).
      • Example of a “misplaced modifier”:
        • Incorrect: She wore a pink summer hat on her head, which was much too big.
          • The modifier (which was much too big) seems to refer to her head.
        • Correct: She wore a pink summer hat, which was much too big.
          • In this case, removing unnecessary words helped connect the modifier to the word/phrases it was intended to modify (pink summer hat).
      • “Dangling modifiers” are slightly more complex. These occur when a modifier is included, but the subject of the sentence is entirely missing. This results in nonsense sentences, where an introductory phrase is left dangling and ambiguous as to what it is modifying.
        • Example of a “dangling modifier”:
          • Incorrect: While surfing in Hawaii with his friends, a shark attacked him.
            • Notice that the modifier (while surfing in Hawaii with his friends) seems to refer to shark. Of course, that is ridiculous, as sharks do not surf.
          • Correct: While surfing in Hawaii with his friends, he was attacked by a shark.
            • By adding the subject (he), the meaning becomes clear.
        • Example of a “dangling modifier”:
          • Incorrect: Visiting the zoo, the birds chirped loudly.
            • The modifier (visiting the zoo) seems to refer to the birds. That is nonsense, as zoos do not sell day-passes to birds.
          • Correct: While I was visiting the zoo, the birds chirped loudly.
            • By adding the subject (I), the meaning becomes clear

            Rubric:

          • SCORING CATEGORY #1: WORD COUNT
            Points received Description
            6 Word count falls within required amount.
            3 Word count within 100 words of the required amount.
            0 Word count over 100 words from required amount.

            SCORING CATEGORY #2: CONTENT OF YOUR FOUR-PARAGRAPH ESSAYParagraph # 1

            Points received Description
            6 or 7 Content is clear, appropriate, and thorough.
            4 or 5 Content exhibits slight deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.
            2 or 3 Content exhibits moderate deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.
            0 or 1 Content exhibits large deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.

            Paragraph # 2

            Points received Description
            6 or 7 Content is clear, appropriate, and thorough.
            4 or 5 Content exhibits slight deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.
            2 or 3 Content exhibits moderate deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.
            0 or 1 Content exhibits large deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.

            Paragraph # 3

            Points received Description
            6 or 7 Content is clear, appropriate, and thorough.
            4 or 5 Content exhibits slight deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.
            2 or 3 Content exhibits moderate deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.
            0 or 1 Content exhibits large deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.

            Paragraph # 4

            Points received Description
            6 or 7 Content is clear, appropriate, and thorough.
            4 or 5 Content exhibits slight deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.
            2 or 3 Content exhibits moderate deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.
            0 or 1 Content exhibits large deficits in clarity, appropriateness, and/or thoroughness.

            SCORING CATEGORY #3: MECHANICS

            Points received Description
            8 Writing has no mechanical errors.
            6 or 7 Writing has a small amount of mechanical errors.
            4 or 5 Writing has a moderate amount of mechanical errors.
            0 or 3 Writing has a large (or extremely large) amount of mechanical errors.

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