Answer all of the question.

Exercise: Respiratory System Mechanics

Activity 1 Measuring Respiratory Volumes and Calculating Capacities

1.What would be an example of an everyday respiratory event the ERV button simulates?

2.What additional skeletal muscles are utilized in an ERV activity?

3.What was the FEV1 (%) at the initial radius of 5.00 mm?

4.What happened to the FEV1 (%) as the radius of the airways decreased? How well did the results compare with your prediction?

5.Explain why the results from the experiment suggest that there is an obstructive, rather than a restrictive, pulmonary problem.

Activity 2 Comparative Spirometry

1.What lung values changed (from those of the normal patient) in the spirogram when the patient with emphysema was selected? Why did these values change as they did? How well did the results compare with your prediction?

2.Which of these two parameters changed more for the patient with emphysema, the FVC or the FEV1?

3.What lung values changed (from those of the normal patient) in the spirogram when the patient experiencing an acute asthma attack was selected? Why did these values change as they did? How well did the results compare with your prediction?

4.How is having an acute asthma attack similar to having emphysema? How is it different?

5.Describe the effect that the inhaler medication had on the asthmatic patient. Did all the spirogram values return to “normal”? Why do you think some values did not return all the way to normal? How well did the results compare with your prediction?

6.How much of an increase in FEV1 do you think is required for it to be considered significantly improved by the medication?

7.With moderate aerobic exercise, which changed more from normal breathing, the ERV or the IRV? How well did the results compare with your prediction?

8.Compare the breathing rates during normal breathing, moderate exercise, and heavy exercise.

Activity 3 Effect of Surfactant and Intrapleural Pressure on Respiration

1.What effect does the addition of surfactant have on the airflow? How well did the results compare with your prediction?

2.Why does surfactant affect airflow in this manner?

3.What effect did opening the valve have on the left lung? Why does this happen?

4.What effect on the collapsed lung in the left side of the glass bell jar did you observe when you closed the valve? How well did the results compare with your prediction?

5.What emergency medical condition does opening the left valve simulate?

6.In the last part of this activity, you clicked the Reset button to draw the air out of the intrapleural space and return the lung to its normal resting condition. What emergency procedure would be used to achieve this result if these were the lungs in a living person?

7.What do you think would happen when the valve is opened if the two lungs were in a single large cavity rather than separate cavities?

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