A review of benzodiazepines and Z drugs as hypnotics; comparing the two groups with regards to safety, efficacy, tolerability and abuse potential.

Formulate your conclusions in an essay of no more than 2000 words. (Please note that references are not included in the word count). 

To consider amongst other things, the evidence for the CSMs cautionary statement, the evidence of harm resulting from benzodiaepine use together with the risk and benfits of alternative agents. You may find the full NICE appraisal TA77, a useful source of data.

2000 words essay (references not included in word count). The content should include argument and interpretation. 

Possible Sources

Longo LP, Johnson B. Addiction: part I: benzodiazepines – side effects, abuse risk and
alternatives. Am Fam Physician. 2000;61(7):2121-8.

· DandarY, Boland A, Strobl J, Dodd S, Haycox A, Bagust, A, et al. Newer hypnotic drugs for the
short-term management of insomnia: A systematic review and economic evaluation.

· Huedo-Medina TB, Kirsch I, Middlemass J, Klonizakis M, Siriwardena AN. Effectiveness of nonbenzodiazepine
hypnotics in treatment of adult insomnia: meta-analysis of data submitted to the
Food and Drug Administration.

· Siriwardena AN, Qureshi MZ, Dyas JV, Middleton H, Orner R. Magic Bullets for
insomnia?Patients’ use and experiences of newer (Z drugs) versus older (benzodiazepine) hypnotics
for sleep problems in primary care.

· Iversen L. ACMD Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, Z-drugs: a review of the evidence of
misuse and harm. 2013. Available from:

· Shahid A, Chung SA, Phillipson R, Shapiro CM. An approach to long-term sedative-hypnotic use.
· Ashton CH. Benzodiazepines — How they work and how to withdraw (The Ashton manual).
Available from: http://www.benzo.org.uk/manual

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